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Flashcards in P Deck (42)
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Lines of Latitude


Parasite drag

Drag caused by the friction of air moving
over the aircraft structure; its amount varies directly with
the airspeed.


Payload (GAMA)

The weight of occupants, cargo, and baggage.



The embodiment of personal traits and
characteristics of an individual that are set at a very early
age and extremely resistant to change.



A tendency for an aircraft to yaw to the left due to
the descending propeller blade on the right producing more
thrust than the ascending blade on the left. This occurs when
the aircraft’s longitudinal axis is in a climbing attitude in
relation to the relative wind. The P-factor would be to the right
if the aircraft had a counterclockwise rotating propeller.


Phugoid oscillations

Long-period oscillations of an
aircraft around its lateral axis. It is a slow change in pitch
accompanied by equally slow changes in airspeed. Angle
of attack remains constant, and the pilot often corrects for
phugoid oscillations without even being aware of them.



Navigation by visual reference to landmarks


Pilot In Command (PIC)

The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of an aircraft.


Pilot Report (PIREP)

Report of meteorological phenomena encountered by aircraft.


Pilots Operating Handbook/Airplane Flight Manual (POH/AFM)

FAA-approved documents published by the
airframe manufacturer that list the operating conditions for
a particular model of aircraft.


Pilot pressure

Ram air pressure used to measure airspeed


Pilot-static head

A combination pickup used to sample pilot pressure and static air pressure.


Plan view

The overhead view of an approach procedure on
an instrument approach chart. The plan view depicts the routes
that guide the pilot from the en route segments to the IAF.



The shape or form of a wing as viewed from
above. It may be long and tapered, short and rectangular, or
various other shapes.



Operation by the use of compressed air


Point-in-space approach

A type of helicopter instrument
approach procedure to a missed approach point more than
2,600 feet from an associated helicopter landing area.


Poor judgement chain

A series of mistakes that may lead
to an accident or incident. Two basic principles generally
associated with the creation of a poor judgment chain are:
(1) one bad decision often leads to another; and (2) as a
string of bad decisions grows, it reduces the number of
subsequent alternatives for continued safe flight. ADM is
intended to break the poor judgment chain before it can
cause an accident or incident.


Position error

Error in the indication of the altimeter, ASI,
and VSI caused by the air at the static system entrance not
being absolutely still.


Position report

A report over a known location as transmitted by an aircraft to ATC


Positive static stability

The initial tendency to return to a state of equilibrium when disturbed from that state.



Implies work rate or units of work per unit of time,
and as such, it is a function of the speed at which the force is
developed. The term “power required” is generally associated
with reciprocating engines.



A complete engine and propeller combination with accessories.



The characteristic of a gyroscope that causes an
applied force to be felt, not at the point of application, but
90° from that point in the direction of rotation.



Any or all forms of water particles (rain,
sleet, hail, or snow) that fall from the atmosphere and reach
the surface.


Precipitation static (P-static)

A form of radio interference
caused by rain, snow, or dust particles hitting the antenna and
inducing a small radio-frequency voltage into it.


Precision approach

A standard instrument approach
procedure in which both vertical and horizontal guidance
is provided.


Precision approach path indicator (PAPI)

A system of
lights similar to the VASI, but consisting of one row of lights
in two- or four-light systems. A pilot on the correct glideslope
will see two white lights and two red lights. See VASI.


Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

A type of radar used
at an airport to guide an aircraft through the final stages of
landing, providing horizontal and vertical guidance. The
radar operator directs the pilot to change heading or adjust
the descent rate to keep the aircraft on a path that allows it
to touch down at the correct spot on the runway.


Precision Runway Monitor (PRM)

System allows
simultaneous, independent instrument flight rules (IFR)
approaches at airports with closely spaced parallel runways.


Preferred IFR routes

Routes established in the major
terminal and en route environments to increase system
efficiency and capacity. IFR clearances are issued based on
these routes, listed in the A/FD except when severe weather
avoidance procedures or other factors dictate otherwise.