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The delay that occurs before an instrument needle attains
a stable indication.


Land breeze

A coastal breeze flowing from land to sea
caused by temperature differences when the sea surface is
warmer than the adjacent land. The land breeze usually occurs
at night and alternates with the sea breeze that blows in the
opposite direction by day.


Land as soon as possible

Land without delay at the nearest
suitable area, such as an open field, at which a safe approach
and landing is assured.


Land as soon as practical

The landing site and duration of
flight are at the discretion of the pilot. Extended flight beyond
the nearest approved landing area is not recommended.


Land immediately

The urgency of the landing is paramount.
The primary consideration is to ensure the survival of the
occupants. Landing in trees, water, or other unsafe areas
should be considered only as a last resort.


Lateral axis

. An imaginary line passing through the center
of gravity of an airplane and extending across the airplane
from wingtip to wingtip.


Lateral stability (rolling)

The stability about the
longitudinal axis of an aircraft. Rolling stability or the ability
of an airplane to return to level flight due to a disturbance
that causes one of the wings to drop.



Measurement north or south of the equator in
degrees, minutes, and seconds. Lines of latitude are also
referred to as parallels.


Lead radial

The radial at which the turn from the DME arc
to the inbound course is started.


Leading edge

The part of an airfoil that meets the airflow first.


Leading edge devices

High lift devices which are found
on the leading edge of the airfoil. The most common types
are fixed slots, movable slats, and leading edge flaps.


Leading-edge flap

A portion of the leading edge of an
airplane wing that folds downward to increase the camber,
lift, and drag of the wing. The leading-edge flaps are
extended for takeoffs and landings to increase the amount of
aerodynamic lift that is produced at any given airspeed


Leans, The.

A physical sensation caused by an abrupt
correction of a banked attitude entered too slowly to
stimulate the motion sensing system in the inner ear. The
abrupt correction can create the illusion of banking in the
opposite direction.


Licensed empty weight

The empty weight that consists
of the airframe, engine(s), unusable fuel, and undrainable
oil plus standard and optional equipment as specified in the
equipment list. Some manufacturers used this term prior to
GAMA standardization.



A component of the total aerodynamic force on an airfoil
and acts perpendicular to the relative wind.


Limit load factor

Amount of stress, or load factor, that an
aircraft can withstand before structural damage or failure


Lines of flux

Invisible lines of magnetic force passing
between the poles of a magnet.


Load factor

r. The ratio of a specified load to the total weight
of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of
any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertial forces, or
ground or water reactions.



A type of ammeter installed between the generator
output and the main bus in an aircraft electrical system.


Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)

A differential
global positioning system (DGPS) that improves the accuracy
of the system by determining position error from the GPS
satellites, then transmitting the error, or corrective factors,
to the airborne GPS receiver.


Localizer (LOC)

The portion of an ILS that gives left/right
guidance information down the centerline of the instrument
runway for final approach.


Localizer-type directional aid (LDA)

for nonprecision instrument approaches with utility and
accuracy comparable to a localizer but which is not a part
of a complete ILS and is not aligned with the runway. Some
LDAs are equipped with a glideslope.


Locator Middle Marker (LMM)

Nondirectional radio
beacon (NDB) compass locator, collocated with a middle
marker (MM).


Locator Outer Marker (LOM)

NDB compass locator,
collocated with an outer marker (OM).



Measurement east or west of the Prime Meridian
in degrees, minutes, and seconds. The Prime Meridian is 0°
longitude and runs through Greenwich, England. Lines of
longitude are also referred to as meridians.


Longitude axis

An imaginary line through an aircraft
from nose to tail, passing through its center of gravity. The
longitudinal axis is also called the roll axis of the aircraft.
Movement of the ailerons rotates an airplane about its
longitudinal axis.


Longitudinal stability (pitching)

Stability about the lateral
axis. A desirable characteristic of an airplane whereby it tends
to return to its trimmed angle of attack after displacement.


LOng RAnge Navigation (LORAN)

An electronic
navigational system by which hyperbolic lines of position
are determined by measuring the difference in the time of
reception of synchronized pulse signals from two fixed
transmitters. LORAN-A operates in the 1750–1950 kHz
frequency band. LORAN-C and -D operate in the 100–110
kHz frequency band.



. A radio navigation system that utilizes master
and slave stations transmitting timed pulses. The time
difference in reception of pulses from several stations
establishes a hyperbolic line of position, which can be
identified on a LORAN chart. A fix in position is obtained
by utilizing signals from two or more stations.


Low or medium frequency

A frequency range between
190 and 535 kHz with the medium frequency above 300
kHz. Generally associated with nondirectional beacons
transmitting a continuous carrier with either a 400 or 1,020
Hz modulation.