Gas Laws Flashcards Preview

Chemistry - New > Gas Laws > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gas Laws Deck (19):
1

Define a mole of a substance

A mole has as many particles as 12g of carbon-12

2

What is avogadros law?

It states that equal volumes of gases contain the equal number of molecules under equal conditions of temperature and pressure

3

What does Charles law state?

At constant pressure, the volume and temperature of a fixed mass of a gas are directly proportional to eachother

4

What does Boyle’s law state?

At a constant temperature, the volume and pressure of a fixed mass of a gas is inversely proportional

5

Give the formula for the law of combining volumes

P1V1 P2V2
T1 = T2

6

What is standard pressure and temperature

Temp - 273K
Pressure - 1 x 10^5 pascals

7

State gay-lussac’s law

When gases react, the volumes of the reacting gases and any gaseous products bear a simple whole number ratio when volumes are measured at the same temperatures and pressure

8

Explain how avogadro’s law provides an explanation for gay-lussac’s law

Avogadros law explained gay-lussac’s law of combining volumes in whole numbered ratios more in terms of combining of actual molecules of reacting gases and still kept the pressure and temperature constant

9

What is an ideal gas?

Obeys all Gas laws and the kinetic theory of gases at all temperatures and pressures

10

Give one reason why real gases differ from ideal gases

Molecules of gases are often attracted weakly to each other
collisions not actually elastic, collide with eachother and often lose or gain energy

11

Explain the kinetic theory of gases

Collisions in gases are always elastic [no reaction ever occurs]
No attraction or repulsions
Take up such a small volume

12

When are gases closest to ideal behaviour?

High temperature
Low pressure

13

How to find out which gas is closest to an ideal gas

Covalent
Single bonds
Low Mr

14

What is the equation of state for an ideal gas?

PV = nRT
pressure - Pascals [x1000 from kPascals]
volume - m3 [cm - x 10^-6]
n - moles
r - give
t - +273

15

How many moles of gas are present in a sample containing 1.8 x10^23 atoms of chlorine at stp

1.8 x 10^23 / 2 = 9 x10^23 / 6 x 10^23 = 1.5 moles

16

i) Carbon dioxide is stored under pressure in liquid form in a fire extinguisher. Two kilograms of carbon dioxide are released into the air as a gas on the discharge of the fire extinguisher. What volume does this gas occupy at a pressure of 1.01 x 10^5 Pa and a temperature of 290K
ii) What mass of helium gas would occupy the same volume at the same temperature and pressure?

i) 2000 g (2 kg) / mr (44) = 45.5 MOLES
PV = nRT
V = nRT
P
45.5 x 8.3 x 290
1.01 x 105
1.069 – 1.10
ii) 45.5 x 4 (mr) = 182 g

17

Give one reason why carbon dioxide is more easily liquified than helium

Stronger intermolecular forces

18

A foil balloon has a capacity of 10 litres. How many atoms of helium occupy this balloon when is filled with 10% v/v mixture of helium in air at room temp and pressure

10l 1
100l = 10
1 l in 10 lr balloon
1 / room temp = 24 = .0416 moles
.0416 x 6 x 10^23 = 2.4 x 10^22

19

A small quantity of the volatile organic solvent propanone evaporates at room temperature and pressure. Use the equation of state for an ideal gas to calculate the volume, in litres, of propanone vapour formed when .29g of liquid propanone evaporates taking room temperature as 20 degrees celcius and room pressure as 101kPa

PV = nRT => V = nRT
T = 20 + 273 = 293 K
Pa -101 x 1000 = 1.01 x 105 Pa
n = 0.29 /58 = 0.005 mol
V = 0.005 x 8.3 x 293 (3) = 0.00012 m3
1.01 x 105
0.00012 x 1000 = 0.12 litres