Flashcards in Gas Laws Deck (19):
Define a mole of a substance
A mole has as many particles as 12g of carbon-12
What is avogadros law?
It states that equal volumes of gases contain the equal number of molecules under equal conditions of temperature and pressure
What does Charles law state?
At constant pressure, the volume and temperature of a fixed mass of a gas are directly proportional to eachother
What does Boyle’s law state?
At a constant temperature, the volume and pressure of a fixed mass of a gas is inversely proportional
Give the formula for the law of combining volumes
T1 = T2
What is standard pressure and temperature
Temp - 273K
Pressure - 1 x 10^5 pascals
State gay-lussac’s law
When gases react, the volumes of the reacting gases and any gaseous products bear a simple whole number ratio when volumes are measured at the same temperatures and pressure
Explain how avogadro’s law provides an explanation for gay-lussac’s law
Avogadros law explained gay-lussac’s law of combining volumes in whole numbered ratios more in terms of combining of actual molecules of reacting gases and still kept the pressure and temperature constant
What is an ideal gas?
Obeys all Gas laws and the kinetic theory of gases at all temperatures and pressures
Give one reason why real gases differ from ideal gases
Molecules of gases are often attracted weakly to each other
collisions not actually elastic, collide with eachother and often lose or gain energy
Explain the kinetic theory of gases
Collisions in gases are always elastic [no reaction ever occurs]
No attraction or repulsions
Take up such a small volume
When are gases closest to ideal behaviour?
How to find out which gas is closest to an ideal gas
What is the equation of state for an ideal gas?
PV = nRT
pressure - Pascals [x1000 from kPascals]
volume - m3 [cm - x 10^-6]
n - moles
r - give
t - +273
How many moles of gas are present in a sample containing 1.8 x10^23 atoms of chlorine at stp
1.8 x 10^23 / 2 = 9 x10^23 / 6 x 10^23 = 1.5 moles
i) Carbon dioxide is stored under pressure in liquid form in a fire extinguisher. Two kilograms of carbon dioxide are released into the air as a gas on the discharge of the fire extinguisher. What volume does this gas occupy at a pressure of 1.01 x 10^5 Pa and a temperature of 290K
ii) What mass of helium gas would occupy the same volume at the same temperature and pressure?
i) 2000 g (2 kg) / mr (44) = 45.5 MOLES
PV = nRT
V = nRT
45.5 x 8.3 x 290
1.01 x 105
1.069 – 1.10
ii) 45.5 x 4 (mr) = 182 g
Give one reason why carbon dioxide is more easily liquified than helium
Stronger intermolecular forces
A foil balloon has a capacity of 10 litres. How many atoms of helium occupy this balloon when is filled with 10% v/v mixture of helium in air at room temp and pressure
100l = 10
1 l in 10 lr balloon
1 / room temp = 24 = .0416 moles
.0416 x 6 x 10^23 = 2.4 x 10^22