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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Physiology Deck (200):
1

Endocrine secretions of the intestine

GIP

CCK

Secretin

Gastrin

Glucagon-Like Peptide (GLP)

2

Then enteric nervous system, endocrine cells, paracrine cells and local tissue factors are examples of ___________ control of the GI tract.

Then enteric nervous system, endocrine cells, paracrine cells and local tissue factors are examples of Intrinisic control of the GI tract.

3

Factors that increase blood flow to the GI tract

NO

PSNS Stimulation

4

_________ acts on muscarinic receptors, inhibits Somatostatin and promotes histamine and gastrin.

AcH acts on muscarinic receptors, inhibits Somatostatin and promotes histamine and gastrin.

5

___________ of the GI tract spontaneously depolarizes and repolarizes

Visceral Smooth Muscle of the GI tract spontaneously depolarizes and repolarizes

6

GI: __________: increases the reabsorption of Na+ and increases the secretion of K+, is NOT vasoactive.

Aldosterone: increases the reabsorption of Na+ and increases the secretion of K+, is NOT vasoactive.

7

__________ 

Increases peptic cell secretion

Contraction of LES and pyloric spincter

Increase gastric motility and blood flow

Gastrin

8

_____________ are necessary for digestion.

Hydrolytic Enzymes are necessary for digestion.

9

_________ drugs block histamine receptors

-tidine drugs block histamine receptors

10

In dogs and cats, the pancreas produces ________, which is unlike many other species.

In dogs and cats, the pancreas produces GIF, which is unlike many other species.

11

__________ use water to break bonds

Hydrolytic Enzymes use water to break bonds

12

Peristalsis

Movement in the aborad direction

13

Perfusion of the GI tract is controlled by :

Autonomic Nervous System

Endocrine Secretion

Paracrine Secretion

Local Tissue Factors

14

HCO3 production is (increased/decreased) by prostaglandins

HCO3 production is (increased/decreased) by prostaglandins

15

Preganglionic neurons of the _________ nervous system origniate from the vagus or pelvic nerves to have effect on the GI tract.

Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system origniate from the vagus or pelvic nerves to have effect on the GI tract.

16

__________: increased secretion of HCO3 into the lumen and H into the plasma.

Acid Tide: increased secretion of HCO3 into the lumen and H into the plasma.

17

_____________ of the heart allow the action potential to travel the fastest due to the least resistance.

Perkinje Fibers of the heart allow the action potential to travel the fastest due to the least resistance.

18

Local tissue factors have a ___________ effect on the blood vessels of the Gi tract

Local tissue factors have a vasodilatory effect on the blood vessels of the Gi tract

19

__________ nervous system neurons originates from the craniosacral plexus.

Parasympathetic nervous system neurons originates from the craniosacral plexus.

20

________ is only secreated by the salivary glands and follicular cells of the thyroid glands.

Iodide is only secreated by the salivary glands and follicular cells of the thyroid glands.

21

__________ secretions of the intestine increase secretion by stimulating crypt cells and are vasodilatory

Paracrine secretions of the intestine increase secretion by stimulating crypt cells and are vasodilatory

_____________________

Histamine and Prostaglandin

22

Types of Intestinal secretions

Exocrine

Paracrine

Endocrine

23

Antiperistalsis is a prominant feature in what species

Equine

______________________

Feature at the pelvic flexure to allow for increased fermentation time

24

___________: paracrine secretion that increases GI motility.

Serotonin: paracrine secretion that increases GI motility.

25

Ruminants use salivary glands as 

Ruminants use salivary glands as a source of ruminal and reticular fluid

_______________________

Essential to buffer acid produced by fermentation

26

GI cells throughout their lifetime move from ________ to ___________

GI cells throughout their lifetime move from crypt to villi

27

The __________ of the GI tract is largely reabsorptive, especially to Cl and Na.

The Large Intestine of the GI tract is largely reabsorptive, especially to Cl and Na.

28

Describe how protein is broken down for absorption

Protein broken down to oligopeptides by protease

Oligopeptides broken down to amino acids by brush border oligopeptidases

29

___________- blood leaving the stomach is markedly alkaline.

Alkaline Tide- blood leaving the stomach is markedly alkaline.

30

________ and _________ are transported from the pancreas for digestion together.

Amylase and Protease are transported from the pancreas for digestion together.

31

____________: Stimulates gastrin secretion and promotes closrue of the pyloric sphincter with CCK.

Gastrin: Stimulates gastrin secretion and promotes closrue of the pyloric sphincter with CCK.

32

________ and _______ are products of the parasympathetic nervous system that aid in the perfusion of the GI tract.

VIP and NO are products of the parasympathetic nervous system that aid in the perfusion of the GI tract.

33

Dogs and cats use salivary glands for __________.

Dogs and cats use salivary glands for evaporative cooling.

34

The composition of saliva is similar to plasma, with the exceptions of

Increased PO4 in ruminant saliva

Increased [I]

35

ACH bound to muscarinic receptors promotes the secretion of _______ from the epithelium.

ACH bound to muscarinic receptors promotes the secretion of NO from the epithelium.

36

_________ blocks all muscarinc receptors

Atropine blocks all muscarinc receptors

37

________ nervous system neurons originates from the thoracolumbar plexus

Sympathetic nervous system neurons originates from the thoracolumbar plexus

38

_______ control of the GI is achieved through the regulation of perfusion.

Indirect control of the GI is achieved through the regulation of perfusion.

39

_________: from the SNS vasoconstricts and decreases blood flow of the GI tract.

Norepinephrine: from the SNS vasoconstricts and decreases blood flow of the GI tract.

40

__________ cells of the GI tract are acid inhibiting by inhibiting gastrin.

D cells of the GI tract are acid inhibiting by inhibiting gastrin.

41

____________: stimulated by acidic luminal pH.  

Stimulates bile and pancreatic secretion and crypt cell secretion

Inhibits gastric secretion, gastric motility and gastric emptying

Secretin: stimulated by acidic luminal pH.  

Stimulates bile and pancreatic secretion and crypt cell secretion

Inhibits gastric secretion, gastric motility and gastric emptying

42

Antiperistalsis

Movement in the orad direction

43

___________ of the heart generates the action potential.

SA Node of the heart generates the action potential.

44

Peristalsis occurs in what part of the stomach

Antrum

45

The GI tract can receive up to ______% of cardiac output.

The GI tract can receive up to 30% of cardiac output.

46

Proton moves into the GI lumen by way of _________ in the Gastric Parietal Cells.

Proton moves into the GI lumen by way of H-K ATPase in the Gastric Parietal Cells.

47

________________

Increased pancreatic enzyme

Increased pancreatic cell death

Inflammation

Pancreatitis

48

Side effect of -prazole drugs

H+ is sequestered inside the cell which leads to increased pH in the lumen.  Can lead to bacterial overgrowth

49

Example of plant beta-polymer carbohydrates

Cellulose

50

Water enters the lumen by osmosis, it follows _________ secretion.

Water enters the lumen by osmosis, it follows Cl- secretion.

51

Interstitial cells of the GI tract differ from cardiac pacemaker cells in that 

Interstitial cells of the GI tract differ from cardiac pacemaker cells in that interstital cells dont depolarize all the way to threshold

52

____________

Produced by the glandular stomach

Stimulate release of Growth Hormone

Appetite promoting

Peaks right before a meal

Promote food intake by decreasing sensitivity to distention receptors

Ghrelin

53

Transporters on the Parietal Cells of the GI tract

H-K ATPase

HCO3-Cl Exchanger

Cl Channel

K Channel

 

54

Describe the negative feedback mechanism on D cells of the GI tract

Increased lumen [H+] stimulates D cells

Increased ACH due to the PSNS inhibits D cells

55

____________ reflex is initiated by gastric dilation and its effect is peristaltic and mas movement at the distal colon (entry of feces into the rectum)

Gastrocolic reflex is initiated by gastric dilation and its effect is peristaltic and mas movement at the distal colon (entry of feces into the rectum)

56

_________ nervous system acts as a pre-synaptic inhibitor of GI tract motility

Sympathetic nervous system acts as a pre-synaptic inhibitor of GI tract motility

57

The gastrointestinal tract has a protective function due to ____________.

The gastrointestinal tract has a protective function due to immunocytes.

58

The exocrine glands make tubular fluid alkaline by reabsorbing __________ and secreting _________.

The exocrine glands make tubular fluid alkaline by reabsorbing Cl- and secreting HCO3-.

59

Phases of Gastric Motility

Cephalic Phase

Gastric Phase

Intestinal Phase

60

____________ secretes the majority of hydrolytic enzymes.

Pancreas secretes the majority of hydrolytic enzymes.

61

Filtration and flow through the kidney is voluntary/involuntary.

Filtration and flow through the kidney is voluntary/involuntary.

62

___________

"Inhibitory"

@Stomach: inhibits histamine secreting cells

Somatostatin

63

_________ secretion: enters the lumen of the tubular gut at the mouth or small intestine- more alkaline

Secondary secretion: enters the lumen of the tubular gut at the mouth or small intestine- more alkaline

64

Regulation of GI function is largely under __________ control.

Regulation of GI function is largely under CNS control.

65

T/F: Carbohydrates, Protein and Lipids can be absorbed in the form ingested.

False 

______________________

They must be digested in order to be absorbed

66

_____ cells of the GI tract are acid promoting.

ECL cells of the GI tract are acid promoting.

67

__________ functions to emulsify lipid.  Separates lipid into small pieces to increase surface area and keeps the pieces from going back together.

Bile functions to emulsify lipid.  Separates lipid into small pieces to increase surface area and keeps the pieces from going back together.

68

After _________ flow through the gastrointestinal tract becomes involuntary.

After swallowing flow through the gastrointestinal tract becomes involuntary.

69

Describe how carbohydrate is broken down for absorption

Starch/Glycogen broken down to Maltose (and other products) by amylase

Amylase products are broken down into transportable forms by brush border enzymes

70

VIP and AcH in the GI tract promote the production of ________.

VIP and AcH in the GI tract promote the production of NO.

71

Inhibitory motor neurons of the GI tract secrete ______, ______ and __________ to cause relaxation.

Inhibitory motor neurons of the GI tract secrete NO, VIP and ATP to cause relaxation.

72

Electrolytes that can always be found in the GI lumen

Cl, K, Na and Water

73

H-K ATPase only found in

Gastric Parietal Cells

Alpha Intercalated Cells

74

_________ drugs inhibit H-K ATPase transporters

-prazole drugs inhibit H-K ATPase transporters

75

CO2, H+ and K+ are examples of

Local Tissue Factors

76

Carbohydrates can be absorbed in ________ and __________ forms.

Carbohydrates can be absorbed in alpha-polymer and beta-polymer forms.

77

________ stimulates skeletal muscle to contract.

AcH stimulates skeletal muscle to contract.

78

___________ plays an important role in overall control of insulin relased by beta cells of the pancreas.

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) plays an important role in overall control of insulin relased by beta cells of the pancreas.

79

There is a significant increase in luminal __________ ports in the colon.

There is a significant increase in luminal Na uniports ports in the colon.

80

_________ control mechanisms are initiated outside of the GI tract.

Extrinsic control mechanisms are initiated outside of the GI tract.

81

_____________

@ SI: inhibits CCK and Secretin

Slows nutrient absorption

Somatostatin

82

Secretion of amylase begins when

Before ingesta reaches the small intestine

83

______ and _______ cells of the stomach can be pharmacologically altered.

Parietal and Mucous cells of the stomach can be pharmacologically altered.

84

Paracrine secretions of the intestine

Histamine

Prostaglandins

85

Examples of sources of plant alpha-polymer carbohydrates

Amylase

Amylopectin

86

Hormone productionis greatest in what sections of the GI tract

Glandular Stomach 

Small Intestine

87

_____________: stimulated by glucose, monoacylglycerols and fatty acids; promotes the release of insulin.

GIP: stimulated by glucose, monoacylglycerols and fatty acids; promotes the release of insulin.

88

GI motility occurs without outside stimulation in response to ________.

GI motility occurs without outside stimulation in response to Stretch.

89

Salivary gland, liver and pancrease secrete ________ secretion.

Salivary gland, liver and pancrease secrete aqueous secretion.

90

___________ increase uptake of Cl from the basolateral membrane and increase the number of open Cl ports in the luminal membrane.

Secretagogues increase uptake of Cl from the basolateral membrane and increase the number of open Cl ports in the luminal membrane.

91

__________ inhibits gastrin

Somatostatin inhibits gastrin

92

Excitatory motor neurons can be stimulated in the GI tract by

GI itself

CNS

93

Cl- enters the basolateral membrane of GI cells by

Na-K-2Cl Symport

Na-Cl Symport

HCO3- Cl Exchanger

94

Pancreatic disease is assessed through evaluation of ______________.

Pancreatic disease is assessed through evaluation of Plasma [Pancreatic Enzyme].

______________________

Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity (PLI)

Trypsin-Like Immunoreactivity (TLI)

95

Bile increases the surface area of lipid in order for ___________ to have better access.

Bile increases the surface area of lipid in order for Pancreatic Lipases to have better access.

96

___________ nervous system exerts its effect in a particular area of the GI tract.

Parasympathetic nervous system exerts its effect in a particular area of the GI tract.

97

Describe the process of GI motility when stimulated by the CNS

Preganglionic neurons from the brain secrete ACH onto nicotinc receptors of the motor neurons

Excitatory motor neurons secrete their products and  cause contraction of circular smooth muscle

Inhibitory motor neurons secrete their products and cause relaxation of circular smooth muscle

98

GI:__________: increases the absorption of calcium, phorphorus and magnesium

Calcitriol: increases the absorption of calcium, phorphorus and magnesium

99

-_________ drugs increase insulin by inhibiting the enzyme (DPP4) that decrades incretins

-gliptin drugs increase insulin by inhibiting the enzyme (DPP4) that decrades incretins

100

Paracrine secretions typically have a __________ effect on the blood vessels of the GI tract.

Paracrine secretions typically have a vasodilatory effect on the blood vessels of the GI tract.

101

_____________ - thin layer of alkaline fluid in the glandular stomach, created by mucin trapping HCO3

Gastric Mucosal Barrier - thin layer of alkaline fluid in the glandular stomach, created by mucin trapping HCO3

102

Important pancreatic proteases

Trypsinogen

Chymotrypsinogen

Procarboxypeptidase

103

________ glands have an effect on the GI tract but are located outside the gut wall.

Exocrine glands have an effect on the GI tract but are located outside the gut wall.

104

Exocrine secretions of the small intestine 

Mucin

Guanylin

Enterokinase

105

As cells of the GI tract get older they transition from net __________ to net __________ in function.

As cells of the GI tract get older they transition from net secretory to net absorptive in function.

106

Antagonists of HCl production

Somatostatin

Prostaglandins

Secretin

CCK

107

___________ competitively inhibits gastrin by binding to its receptors.

CCK competitively inhibits gastrin by binding to its receptors.

108

Bacteria have developed toxins to stimulate the release of _________ in the GI tract.

Bacteria have developed toxins to stimulate the release of guanylin in the GI tract.

109

_______________ when in decreased concentration in the GI tract stimulate production of AGII and ADH.

Effective Circulating Hormone (ECH) when in decreased concentration in the GI tract stimulate production of AGII and ADH.

110

Efferent Neurons are related to _______ responses.

Efferent Neurons are related to motor responses.

111

HCO3 production is (increased/decreased) by the SNS

HCO3 production is (increased/decreased) by the SNS

112

___________ control are mechanisms found entirely within the GI tract.

Intrinsic control are mechanisms found entirely within the GI tract.

113

________ phase of gastric motility is characterized by being stimulated by sight, smell and taste, distention of the esophagus and hypoglycemia.  The vasovagal reflex stimulates parietal, peptic and mucosal cells.

Cephalic phase of gastric motility is characterized by being stimulated by sight, smell and taste, distention of the esophagus and hypoglycemia.  The vasovagal reflex stimulates parietal, peptic and mucosal cells.

114

________ cells respond directly to contents of the GI lumen.

Endocrine cells respond directly to contents of the GI lumen.

115

___________: secreted by crypt cells of the intestine, binds luminal membrane receptors to increas secretion.

Guanylin: secreted by crypt cells of the intestine, binds luminal membrane receptors to increas secretion.

116

____________: stimulated by fatty acids, monoacylglycerols.  

Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder, pancreatic acinar secretion, crypt cell secretion, bile duct secretion and decreases gastric emptying.

 Inhibits gastric motility and HCl secretion.

CCK: stimulated by fatty acids, monoacylglycerols.  

Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder, pancreatic acinar secretion, crypt cell secretion, bile duct secretion and decreases gastric emptying.  

Inhibits gastric motility and HCl secretion.

117

Pacemaker cells spontaneously depolarize by 

Pacemaker cells spontaneously depolarize by closing K+ channels

118

___________ reflex is initiated by the CNS and its effect is via the SNS and PSNS to the GI tract.

Vasovagal reflex is initiated by the CNS and its effect is via the SNS and PSNS to the GI tract.

119

___________ is essential for maturation of red blood cells

Vitamin B12 is essential for maturation of red blood cells

120

The most abundant carbohydrate polymer is ___________.

The most abundant carbohydrate polymer is cellulose.

121

PSNS: Preganglionic Neuron secretes _______ onto a __________ receptor.  The postganglionic neuron secretes _________ onto a __________ receptor causing ___________.

PSNS: Preganglionic Neuron secretes ACH onto a Nicotinic receptor.  The postganglionic neuron secretes ACH onto a Muscarinic receptor causing dilation.

122

Digestion requires the __________ and __________.

Digestion requires the Small Intestine and Pancreas.

123

SNS: Preganglionic Neuron secretes _______ onto a __________ receptor.  The postganglionic neuron secretes _________ onto a __________ receptor causing ___________.

SNS: Preganglionic Neuron secretes ACH onto a nicotinic receptor.  The postganglionic neuron secretes NE onto a alpha-1 adrenergic receptor causing constriction.

_____________________

NE also binds to beta-2 adrenergic receptors to cause dilation

124

Exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract include

Salivary glands

Pancreas

Liver

125

_________ of the heart reaches threshold the fastest

AV Node of the heart reaches threshold the fastest

126

Endocrine secretions of the GI tract

Epinephrine

Peptide hormones

Effective Circulating Hormone (ECH)

127

D cells of the GI tract have receptors for

ACH

128

_____________

@Pancreas: inhibits exocrine secretion and secretion of glucagon by alpha-cells

Inhibit insulin secretion by beta cells

Somatostatin

129

GI: ___________: (SNS) increases absorption and reabsorption of electrolytes (and water)

Epinephrine: (SNS) increases absorption and reabsorption of electrolytes (and water)

130

________ nervous system promotes gastric motility

Parasympathetic nervous system promotes gastric motility

131

_______ cells of the GI tract are gastrin promoting.

G cells of the GI tract are gastrin promoting.

132

Filtration through the kidney is regulated by

Blood Pressure

Neurotransmitter

Hormones

133

There is an increased number of gastric parietal cells in the _______ of the stomach.

There is an increased number of gastric parietal cells in the Corpus of the stomach.

134

Cl- in the GI tract drives the secretion of

Na, K and H

135

ECL cells secrete _________.

ECL cells secrete histamine.

136

Flow of water (increases/decreases) from duodenum to large intestine.

Flow of water (increases/decreases) from duodenum to large intestine.

137

___________ causes skeletal muscle to relax.

Lack of AcH causes skeletal muscle to relax.

138

D Cells in the antrum of the stomach have receptors for 

CCK 

ACH

139

_________ control is the direct interaction of a NT, Hormone, or Paracrine secretion with parts of the GI tract.

Direct control is the direct interaction of a NT, Hormone, or Paracrine secretion with parts of the GI tract.

140

Incretins

Substances that stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin

141

__________: from the adrenal medulla has vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory effects in the GI tract.

Epinephrine: from the adrenal medulla has vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory effects in the GI tract.

142

The form in which lipid is absorbed is ____________.

The form in which lipid is absorbed is Triacylglycerol.

143

_____________ drugs inhibit prostaglandin production.

COX inhibitors and Glucocorticoids drugs inhibit prostaglandin production.

144

____________

Increased eating

Increased amount of feces

Undigested lipid in form of fat in feces

Decreased weight

Pancreatic insufficiency

145

____________ of the GI Interstitial cells allows less stimulus to reach threshold.

"Priming" of the GI Interstitial cells allows less stimulus to reach threshold.

146

Bile is stored in the __________

Bile is stored in the gallbladder

________________

Exception: Equine!  They don't have a gallbladder

147

Acid is produced in what parts of the stomach

Fundus and Corpus

148

____________: products of metabolism that affect the behavior of blood vessels.

Local Tissue Factors: products of metabolism that affect the behavior of blood vessels.

149

__________ function is dilute and buffer chyme to create optimum pH; also hydrolyzes protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acids.

Exocrine Pancreas function is dilute and buffer chyme to create optimum pH; also hydrolyzes protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acids.

150

_________ is an important source of nitrogen for microbes of the forestomach of ruminants.

Urea is an important source of nitrogen for microbes of the forestomach of ruminants.

151

The products of amylase stimulate _______ and _________.

The products of amylase stimulate secretion and blood flow.

152

D cells of the GI tract secrete _________.

D cells of the GI tract secrete Somatostatin.

153

Factors the decrease blood flow to the GI tract

ADH

E

NE

AGII

SNS Stimulation

154

Visceral smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle because it is stimulated to

Visceral smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle because it is stimulated to contract AND relax

155

__________ from the liver, break down fat by physical digestion.

Bile Acids from the liver, break down fat by physical digestion.

156

The _______ phase is inhibitory; Secretin, CCK and Gastrin are released.

The Intestinal phase is inhibitory; Secretin, CCK and Gastrin are released.

157

_________ occurs when a cell secretes a product that has an effect on a neighboring cell.

Paracrine secretion occurs when a cell secretes a product that has an effect on a neighboring cell.

158

_____________

Vasodilatory

Increases gastric motility

Histamine

159

___________ of the GI tract is a major site of absorption.

Small Intestine of the GI tract is a major site of absorption.

160

Salivary glands are stimulated by

Neurotransmitters

Hormone Secretions

Paracrine Secretions

161

Peptide hormones from the GI tract have a ___________ effect.

Peptide hormones from the GI tract have a vasodilatory effect.

162

________ and ________ are responsible for the absorption of lipids.

Bile and Pancreatic Proteases are responsible for the absorption of lipids.

163

_________ cell of the GI tract produces break down substances.

Peptic (Chief) cell of the GI tract produces break down substances.

164

_________ secretion: progress toward the lumen of the tubular gut, they are modified by secretory and reabsorptive actvities of ductular cells.

Primary secretion: progress toward the lumen of the tubular gut, they are modified by secretory and reabsorptive actvities of ductular cells.

165

________ cells of the glandular stomach produce mucin and HCO3

Mucus (Neck) cells of the glandular stomach produce mucin and HCO3

166

Afferent Neurons are related to ___________ responses.

Afferent Neurons are related to sensory responses.

167

_____________: stimulated by food breakdown products to stimulate the release of insulin.

Glucagon-Like Peptide (GLP): stimulated by food breakdown products to stimulate the release of insulin.

168

__________ reflex is initiated by distention of the ileum and its effect is to decrease gastric motility.

Iliogastric reflex is initiated by distention of the ileum and its effect is to decrease gastric motility.

169

______ and _______ are incretins of the GI tract

GIP and GLP-1 are incretins of the GI tract

170

___________ cells of the GI tract produce HCl and GIF

Parietal cells of the GI tract produce HCl and GIF

171

Cells in the gastric pit

Mucin (Neck) Cells

Gastric Parietal Cells

172

_________ nervous system inhibits (slows) GI motility

Sympathetic nervous system inhibits (slows) GI motility

173

___________ nervous system causes vasodilation in areas where food is present.

Parasympathetic nervous system causes vasodilation in areas where food is present.

174

Veterinarians request that no food be fed to patients before surgery, this is because:

Anesthesia causes a loss of CNS control

Food in the gut increases the perfusion 

175

___________ are considered the pacemaker cells of the GI tract.

Interstitial Cells are considered the pacemaker cells of the GI tract.

176

_________ nervous system exerts its effect everywhere by stimulating the secretion of epinephrine.

Sympathetic nervous system exerts its effect everywhere by stimulating the secretion of epinephrine.

177

Agonist of HCl secretion

AcH

178

The ________ does not secrete hydrolytic enzymes.

The liver does not secrete hydrolytic enzymes.

179

ECL cells of the GI tract have receptors for

ACH

CCK

Somatostatin

180

The goal of the exocrine glands is to make the fluid entering the gut __________.

The goal of the exocrine glands is to make the fluid entering the gut alkaline.

181

Cells of the GI tract live for _________

Cells of the GI tract live for 2-4 days

____________________

This was a question of the Blue final***

182

G cells of the GI tract have receptors for

GRP

Somatostatin

183

Pacemaker cells of the Heart

SA Node

AV Node

Bundle of His

Perkinje Fibers

184

Distention of the stomach (initiating the vasovagal reflex) and the presence of peptides and amino acids in the  lumen stimulate the __________ phase.

Distention of the stomach (initiating the vasovagal reflex) and the presence of peptides and amino acids in the  lumen stimulate the gastric phase.

185

Na and K move into the GI lumen _________

Na and K move into the GI lumen paracellularly

186

_____________: secreted by absorptive cells to convert trypsinogen to active trypsin

Enterokinase: secreted by absorptive cells to convert trypsinogen to active trypsin

187

Secretion of the pancreas is stimulated by

Sensory (Sight, taste)

Vasovagal Reflex (distention)

AcH (NT)

Gastrin

CCK

Secretin

188

The sympathetic nervous system displays direct inhibition of GI tract motility at the ___________.

The sympathetic nervous system displays direct inhibition of GI tract motility at the sphincters.

189

Absorption in the GI tract would not occur without the secreation of ________ first.

Absorption in the GI tract would not occur without the secreation of water first.

190

_____________ is produced by the glandular stomach, it binds to vitamin B12 to protect it from digestion.

Gastric Intrinsic Factor (GIF) is produced by the glandular stomach, it binds to vitamin B12 to protect it from digestion.

191

EC cells and Serotonin secreting cells are important ___________ cells of the GI tract.

EC cells and Serotonin secreting cells are important paracrine cells of the GI tract.

192

Leakiness of tight junctions (increases/decreases) from duodenum to large intestine.

Leakiness of tight junctions (increases/decreases) from duodenum to large intestine.

193

Post ganglionic neurons of the _______ nervous system inhibit postganglionic neurons of the _________ nervous system.

Post ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system inhibit postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system.

194

_________: secreted by goblet cells of the intestine; initiated by increased [H+], hyperosmolarity and stretch.

Mucin: secreted by goblet cells of the intestine; initiated by increased [H+], hyperosmolarity and stretch.

195

Excitatory neurons of the GI tract secrete ________ and ___________ to cause contraction.

Excitatory neurons of the GI tract secrete ACH and Substance P to cause contraction.

196

Contraction of circular longitundinal muscle (increases/decreases) the diameter of the lumen.

Contraction of circular longitundinal muscle (increases/decreases) the diameter of the lumen.

___________________

Think, Chinese finger trap

197

Describe the process of GI motility when stimulated by the GI itself

EC cells are stimulated to secrete serotonin by GI stimulation

Serotonin stimulates the sensory neuron

Sensory neuron stimulates myenteric and submucosal plexus

Excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons are stimulated to release their products

Contraction of circular smooth muscle occurs in the oral direction

Relaxation of circular smooth muscle occurs in the anal direction

198

________: in the GI tract inhibits actin-myosin interaction in muscle.

VIP: in the GI tract inhibits actin-myosin interaction in muscle.

199

Examples of source of animal alpha-polymer carbohydrates

Glycogen

200

_______________

Decreased pancreatic enzymes due to a decrease in number of pancreatic cells.  

Can lead to decreased insulin if immune mediated diabetes is triggered.  

Can also lead to anemia due to decreased production of GIF.

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency