Reproductive Physiology Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Physiology II > Reproductive Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive Physiology Deck (72):
1

_________ placentas have a cotyledon and placentome

Cotyledonary placentas have a cotyledon and placentome

2

_____ anestrus is due to insufficient hormonal stimuli

True anestrus is due to insufficient hormonal stimuli

3

Reproductive hormone(s) produced by the placenta

Progesterone

Estradiol

hCG/ eCG

Oxytocin

Prostaglandin F2-Alpha

4

Before sperm can bind to zona pellucida they must undergo ___________.

Before sperm can bind to zona pellucida they must undergo Capacitation.

5

Phases of differentiation of sperm

Golgi Phase

Cap Phase

Acrosome Phase

Maturation Phase

6

Species that are considered spontaneous ovulators

Cow

Sow

Mare

Humans

7

________ placentas have band like zone of chorionic villi

Zonary placentas have band like zone of chorionic villi

8

T/F: T4, T3 and Catecholamines cannont pass through placentas

False.  They can pass through placentas with some difficulty

9

________: not displaying signs of estrus

Anestrus: not displaying signs of estrus

10

Species with Epitheliochorial placentas

Sow

Mare

Ruminants

11

____________ induces embryo growth and maintains pregnancy; secretes progesterone.

Corpus Luteum induces embryo growth and maintains pregnancy; secretes progesterone.

12

_________ of sperm generation involves the transition of spermatogonia to spermatocytes.

Proliferation of sperm generation involves the transition of spermatogonia to spermatocytes.

13

__________: bind to receptor but weak to no biological effect like that of native hormone.

Antagonist: bind to receptor but weak to no biological effect like that of native hormone.

14

___________ placental unit with abundant blood vessels and connective tissue.

Cotyledon placental unit with abundant blood vessels and connective tissue.

15

Reproduction is regulated by coordination between the _______ system and __________ system.

Reproduction is regulated by coordination between the nervous system and endocrine system.

16

Reproductive hormone(s) produced by the hypothalamus

GnRH

17

_________ occurs at the spermatocyte stage of sperm production.

Meiosis occurs at the spermatocyte stage of sperm production.

18

Reproductive hormone(s) produced by the Testis

Testosterone

Inhibin

Estradiol

 

19

What are the components of a receptor

Extracellular domain

Transmembrane domain

Intracellular domain

20

________ peaks at ovulation (end of the follicular phase)

Estradiol peaks at ovulation (end of the follicular phase)

21

________: bind to specific receptor and have the same biological response as native hormone.

Agonist : bind to specific receptor and have the same biological response as native hormone.

22

__________ placentas have regionalized disc of chorionic villi

Discoid placentas have regionalized disc of chorionic villi

23

____________ : physiological organic substance produced by specialized cells and released into circulatory blood for transport to target tissues to stimulate or inhibit funcion

Hormone : Physiological organic substance produced by specialized cells and released into circulatory blood for transport to target tissues to stimulate or inhibit funcion

24

Immunoglobulins can pass only through ______________ placentas.

Immunoglobulins can pass only through endochorial placentas.

25

Long day breeders cycle in the ________.

Long day breeders cycle in the spring.

__________________

Mare

26

Stage of Estrous Cycle: ________

Sexual Receptivity

Ovulation occurs at the end

Lutenization of theca and granulosa cells

Decreased rectal and vaginal temperature

Increased [Estradiol] induces increased LH

Increased FSH

Stage of Estrous Cycle: Estrus

Sexual Receptivity

Ovulation occurs at the end

Lutenization of theca and granulosa cells

Decreased rectal and vaginal temperature

Increased [Estradiol] induces increased LH

Increased FSH

27

Species with Cotyledonary placentas

Cow

Sheep

Goat

28

Short day breeders cycle in the _________.

Short day breeders cycle in the fall.

______________

Ewe

29

__________ secreted by the placenta act to stimulate fetal growth

Placental Lactogens secreted by the placenta act to stimulate fetal growth

30

_______: process to reach reproductive competences

Puberty: process to reach reproductive competences

31

_________ phase consists of ovulation to corpus luteum formation.

Luteal phase consists of ovulation to corpus luteum formation.

32

___________ of spermatids to spermatogonia is the last step of sperm production.

Differentiation of spermatids to spermatogonia is the last step of sperm production.

33

Metestrus and Diestrus are considered the _________ phase

Metestrus and Diestrus are considered the Luteal  phase

34

Endocrine control is (slower/faster) and longer lasting than neural control.

Endocrine control is (slower/faster) and longer lasting than neural control.

35

Species with discoid placentas

Humans

Primates

36

Epi- vs Endo- theliochorial placentas are based on

Epi- vs Endo- theliochorial placentas are based on the number of layers that separate fetal from maternal blood supply

37

Most important energy component to fetus is _________ which is transported through the placenta freely.

Most important energy component to fetus is glucose which is transported through the placenta freely.

38

Polyestrus species

Cow

Cat

Sow

Mouse

39

_________: female must experience cervical/vaginal stimulation before ovulation occurs

Induced Ovulators: female must experience cervical/vaginal stimulation before ovulation occurs

40

Anestrus can be due to:

Pregnancy

Lactation

Season

Etc.

41

Parturation is stimulated by

Parturation is stimulated by the fetus' hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis removing the progesterone block

42

Prostaglandin, Oxytocin and Relaxin from the placenta assist with _________.

Prostaglandin, Oxytocin and Relaxin from the placenta assist with parturition.

43

High freqency pulse of GnRH initiates puberty and stimulates an _______ surge.

High freqency pulse of GnRH initiates puberty and stimulates an LH surge.

44

_________ anestrus is due to a failure to detect estrus and pregnancy.

Apparent anestrus is due to a failure to detect estrus and pregnancy.

45

T/F: Hydrosoluable vitamins pass through the placenta relatively freely.

True

46

Spermatozoa are released at a __________ rate.

Spermatozoa are released at a continuous rate.

47

Species with Zonary placentas

Dog

Cat

48

Species with Endotheliochorial placentas

Dog

Cat

49

_________ phase the corpus luteum regresses to ovulation

Follicular phase the corpus luteum regresses to ovulation

50

__________ secreted from the placenta acts to maintain the pregnancy.

Progesterone secreted from the placenta acts to maintain the pregnancy.

51

____________: females exhibit multiple cycles during specific season of year

Seasonal polyestrus: females exhibit multiple cycles during specific season of year

52

Phases of the Estrous Cycle

Follicular phase

Luteal phase

53

__________: display estrus cycles uniformly distributed throughout the year with no seasonal influence.

Polyestrus: display estrus cycles uniformly distributed throughout the year with no seasonal influence.

54

A requirement for puberty to occur is the secreation of _________ in high enough frequency to stimulate gonadotropin release.

A requirement for puberty to occur is the secreation of GnRH in high enough frequency to stimulate gonadotropin release.

55

Stage of Estrous Cycle: ___________

Corpus albicans and final maturation of pre-ovulatory follicle

Increased Estradiol

Constant Progesterone

Increased GnRH

Increased LH

Stage of Estrous Cycle: Proestrus

Corpus albicans and final maturation of pre-ovulatory follicle

Increased Estradiol

Constant Progesterone

Increased GnRH

Increased LH

56

Proestrus to estrus is considered the _________ phase.

Proestrus to estrus is considered the Follicular phase.

57

Species with diffuse placents

Mare

Sow

58

Important steroid hormones involved in reproduction

Progesterone

Estradiol

Testosterone

59

Reproductive hormone(s) produced by the Ovary

Estradiol

Progesterone

Inhibin

Testosterone

Relaxin

60

Reproductive endocrine systems are controlled by ______________ mechanisms.

Reproductive endocrine systems are controlled by negative or positive feedback mechanisms.

61

Hormones have a (short/long) half-life

Hormones have a (short/long) half-life

62

Reproductive hormone(s) produced by the uterus

Prostaglandin F2-alpha

63

Stage of Estrous Cycle: __________

Corpus luteum development

Increased Progesterone

Stage of Estrous Cycle: Metestrus and Diestrus

Corpus luteum development

Increased Progesterone

64

__________ placentas have uniform distribution of chorionic villi that cover entire surface of choriorion

Diffuse placentas have uniform distribution of chorionic villi that cover entire surface of choriorion

65

__________ interphase point of the placenta formed by fetal cotyledon and maternal caruncle.

Placentome interphase point of the placenta formed by fetal cotyledon and maternal caruncle.

66

____________: physiological events that occur between successive periods of sexual receptivity

Estrous Cycle: physiological events that occur between successive periods of sexual receptivity

67

Reproductive hormone(s) produced by the Pituitary

FSH

LH

Prolactin

Oxytocin

68

__________ induces estrus/heat and secretes estradiol.

Ovulatory Follicle induces estrus/heat and secretes estradiol.

69

____________ involves the removal of seminal vesical coating and some surface molecules to allow the sperm to attach to the zona pelluicida.

Capacitation involves the removal of seminal vesical coating and some surface molecules to allow the sperm to attach to the zona pelluicida.

70

Species that are considered induced ovulators

Rabbit

Cat

Ferret

Mink

71

_____________: ovulation brought about by changing endocrine conditions without the need for cervical/vaginal stimulation.

Spontaneous Ovulators: ovulation brought about by changing endocrine conditions without the need for cervical/vaginal stimulation.

72

Endometrial cups are found on _______ placentas

Endometrial cups are found on equine placentas