Gastrointestinal System Flashcards Preview

HESI NCLEX-RN EXAMINATION > Gastrointestinal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal System Deck (38)
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1

A fowler or semi fowler position is beneficial in reducing

the amount of regurgitation as well as in preventing the encroachment of the stomach tissue upward through the opening in the diaphragm.

2

Antiulcer drug abbreviation and action
anatacids
histamine 2 antagonists
proton pump inhibitors

Antacids- "oxide"- neutralize stomach acid content
Histamine 2 Antagonists- "tidine"- Prophylactic treatment for clients at risk for developing ulcers
Proton Pump Inhibitors-"prazole" - Treatment of erosive esophagitis associated with GERD

3

What does stress do to ulcers?

Exacerbates them

4

What are the clinical manifestations of a GI Bleed?

-Pallor: conjunctival, mucous membranes, nail beds
-Dark tarry stools
-Bright red or coffee-ground emesis
-Abdominal mass or bruit
-Decreased BP, rapid pulse, cool extremities, increased respirations

5

How much fluid loss does the GI tract account for?

100-200 mL/ Day

6

Opioids tend to decrease gastric

motility

7

Differentiate between diverticulosis and diverticulitis

Diverticulosis is the presence of pouches in the wall of the intestine. There is usu no discomfort, and the problem goes unnoticed.
Diverticulitis is an inflammation of the diverticula which can lead to perforation of the bowel

8

What are the nutritional needs for a patient having diverticulitis?
Acute
Recovery
Maintenance

Acute: NPO, graduating to liquids
Recovery: No fiber or foods that irritate the bowel
Maintenance: High-fiber diet with bulk forming laxative to prevent pooling of foods in the pouches. Avoid small poorly digested foods

9

What is a mechanical bowel obstruction?

Due to disorder outside the bowel (hernia, adhesions) caused by disorders within the bowel (tumor,diverticulitis) or by blockage of the lumen in the intestine.

10

What is a nonmechanical bowel obstruction?

Due to a paralytic ileus, which does not involve any actual physical obstruction but results from inability of the bowel itself to function.

11

What are the nursing priorities for an abdominal mass?

-NPO
-NG tube
-IV fluids
-Surgical preparations of bowel
-Food and Fluids are restricted for 8 - 10 hours before surgery
-if the patient has bowel obstruction or perforation bowel cleansing is contraindicated
-Oral erythromycin and neomycin are given to further decrease the amount of colonic and rectal bacteria
-If possible, all clients who require surgery for obstruction undergo NG intubation and suction before surgery
-Teaching

12

Diet to prevent bowel cancer

-Eat cruciferous vegetables; cabbage family
-Increase fiber intake
-Maintain average body weight
-Eat less animal fat

13

What are the recommendations for early detection of colon cancer?

-Digital rectal examination every year after 40
-A stool blood test every year after 50
-A colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy examination every 10 years after the age of 50 in average-risk clients, or more often based on the advice of physician

14

What is an early sign of colon cancer?

Rectal bleeding

15

What are the clinical manifestations of jaundice?

-Yellow skin, sclera, or mucous membranes
-Dark clay colored urine
-chalky or clay colored stools

16

What is fetor hepaticus?

Distinctive breath odor of chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a fruity or musty odor that results from the damaged liver's inability to metabolize and detoxify mercaptan, which is produced by the bacteria degradation of methionine, a sulfurous amino acid.

17

Paracentesis and peritoneovenous shunts are indicated for

ascities

18

Esophageal varices may rupture and cause

hemorrhage

19

What is the immediate medical management of esophageal varices?

insertion of an esophagogastric balloon tamponade. Other therapies include vasopressors, vitamin K, coagulation factors, and blood transfusions

20

What is the action of lactulose?

Used to decrease ammonia levels and bowel ph.

21

Tell me about hepatitis A
Source
Vaccine
Potential for liver disease
Immunity

Source: Contaminated food or water
Vaccine: Yes
Potential for liver disease: No
Immunity: Yes

22

Tell me about hepatitis B
Source
Vaccine
Potential for liver disease
Immunity

Source: Contaminated blood products
Vaccine; yes
Potential for liver disease: yes
Immunity : Yes

23

Tell me about hepatitis C
Source
Vaccine
Potential for liver disease
Immunity

Source: Contaminated blood products
Vaccine; No
Potential for liver disease: yes
Immunity: no

24

Where is acute pancreatic pain located?

retroperitoneally

25

How do reduce acute pancreatic pain?

Sitting up or leaning forward

26

What are the non surgical management methods for a client with cholecystitis

-Low fat diet
-Medication for pain and clotting
-Decompression of the stomach via NG tube

27

List four nursing interventions for the client with a hiatal hernia?

1. Sit up while eating and for 1 hour after eating
2. Eat frequent small meals
3. Eliminate problematic foods

28

List 3 categories of medication used in the treatment of PUD

1. Antacids
2. H2 Receptor blockers
3. Mucosal healing agents
4. Proton Pump Inhibitors

29

LIst the symptoms of upper and lower GI bleeds

Upper: Melena, hematemesis, and tarry stools
Lower: bloody and tarry stools

30

What bowel sounds disruptions occur with and intestinal obstruction?

Early: High Pitched
Late: Diminished/ Absent