Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

HESI NCLEX-RN EXAMINATION > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (43)
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1

What is the relationship of the kidneys to the cardiovascular system?
(3)

1) The kidneys filter about 1L of blood per minute.
2) If cardiac output is decreased, the amount of blood going through the kidneys is decreased; urinary output is decreased. Therefore, a decreased urinary output may be a sign of cardia problems
3)When the kidney's produce and excrete 0.5mL of urine/kg of body weight or average 30mL/hour output,, the blood supply is considered to be minimally adequate to perfuse the vital organs.

2

Angina is caused by

Myocardial ischemia.

3

Which cardia medications would be appropriate for acute angina?

1)Nitroglycerin- causes dilation of the coronary arteries allowing more 02 to get to the heart muscles.

4

What does Digoxin do to the heart?

It increases the strength and contractility of the heart muscle.

5

What does Atropine do to the heart?

It increases heart rate by blocking vagal stimulation, which suppress the heart rate.

6

What does Propranolol do to the heart?

Used for long term management for stable angina because it acts as a beta blacker to control vasoconstriction.

7

What is important to remember when administering medications and treatments in patients with myocardial infarctions?

M-Morphine
0-Oxygen
N- Nitroglycerin
A- Aspirin

8

What are the risk factors for HTN?

Hereditary
Race
Age
Alcohol abuse
Increased salt take
Obesity
Use of oral contraceptive

9

What is the number one cause of stroke in HTN clients?

Noncompliance with medication regieme

10

What is the normal adult BUN

10-20

11

What is the normal creatinine level

0.6-1.2 mg/dl

12

How does heparin work?

Prevents the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and
prevents prothrombin to thrombin thereby preventing clot formation.

13

What is the antidote for heparin?

protamine sulfate

14

What is the antidote for Coumadin?

Vitamin K

15

Normal therapeutic range for PT and PTT?

1.5-2.5

16

What is cardioversion?

Delivery of synchronized electrical shocks to the myocardium

17

what are synchronous or demand pacemakers?

Pacemaker fires only when the clients heart rate falls below a rate set on the generator

18

What are asynchronous or fixed pacemakers?

Pacemaker fires at a constant rate

19

Restricting sodium reduces salt and water retention thereby..

reducing vascular volume and preload to the heart

20

Side effects of digitalis are increased when the client is

hypokalemic

21

Digitalis has a negative chronotrophic effect. What does that mean?

It slows the heart rate

22

Hold digitalis if the pulse rate is

below 60

23

What are signs of digitalis toxicity?

Bradycardia, tachycardia, and dysrhythmias.
n/v and headache

24

What is pericarditis?

Inflammation of the lining of the heart and is detected by a friction rub, ST segment elevation, and t wave inversion.

25

How do clients experiencing angina describe that pain?

Described as a squeezing, heavy, burning pain that radiates to the left arm or shoulder. Is transient or prolonged

26

What is the teaching plan for a client taking nitroglycerin?

-Take at the first sign of angina pain
-Take no more than 3 5 min apart
-Call for emergency attention if no relief in 10 minutes

27

List the parameter of BP for diagnosing HTN?

BP > 140/90

28

Differentiate between essential and secondary HTN?

Essential HTN; no known cause
Secondary HTN; develops in response to an identifiable mechanism

29

Develop a teaching plan for a client taking antiHTN medications?

-Explain how and when to take medications
-Reason for medication
-Necessity of compliance
-Need for follow-up visits while on medications
-Need for certain lab tests
-Vital sign parameters while initiating therapy

30

Describe intermittent claudication?

Pain related to PVD.
Pain occurs with exercise and disappears at rest