Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (43)
What is the relationship of the kidneys to the cardiovascular system?
1) The kidneys filter about 1L of blood per minute.
2) If cardiac output is decreased, the amount of blood going through the kidneys is decreased; urinary output is decreased. Therefore, a decreased urinary output may be a sign of cardia problems
3)When the kidney's produce and excrete 0.5mL of urine/kg of body weight or average 30mL/hour output,, the blood supply is considered to be minimally adequate to perfuse the vital organs.
Angina is caused by
Which cardia medications would be appropriate for acute angina?
1)Nitroglycerin- causes dilation of the coronary arteries allowing more 02 to get to the heart muscles.
What does Digoxin do to the heart?
It increases the strength and contractility of the heart muscle.
What does Atropine do to the heart?
It increases heart rate by blocking vagal stimulation, which suppress the heart rate.
What does Propranolol do to the heart?
Used for long term management for stable angina because it acts as a beta blacker to control vasoconstriction.
What is important to remember when administering medications and treatments in patients with myocardial infarctions?
What are the risk factors for HTN?
Increased salt take
Use of oral contraceptive
What is the number one cause of stroke in HTN clients?
Noncompliance with medication regieme
What is the normal adult BUN
What is the normal creatinine level
How does heparin work?
Prevents the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and
prevents prothrombin to thrombin thereby preventing clot formation.
What is the antidote for heparin?
What is the antidote for Coumadin?
Normal therapeutic range for PT and PTT?
What is cardioversion?
Delivery of synchronized electrical shocks to the myocardium
what are synchronous or demand pacemakers?
Pacemaker fires only when the clients heart rate falls below a rate set on the generator
What are asynchronous or fixed pacemakers?
Pacemaker fires at a constant rate
Restricting sodium reduces salt and water retention thereby..
reducing vascular volume and preload to the heart
Side effects of digitalis are increased when the client is
Digitalis has a negative chronotrophic effect. What does that mean?
It slows the heart rate
Hold digitalis if the pulse rate is
What are signs of digitalis toxicity?
Bradycardia, tachycardia, and dysrhythmias.
n/v and headache
What is pericarditis?
Inflammation of the lining of the heart and is detected by a friction rub, ST segment elevation, and t wave inversion.
How do clients experiencing angina describe that pain?
Described as a squeezing, heavy, burning pain that radiates to the left arm or shoulder. Is transient or prolonged
What is the teaching plan for a client taking nitroglycerin?
-Take at the first sign of angina pain
-Take no more than 3 5 min apart
-Call for emergency attention if no relief in 10 minutes
List the parameter of BP for diagnosing HTN?
BP > 140/90
Differentiate between essential and secondary HTN?
Essential HTN; no known cause
Secondary HTN; develops in response to an identifiable mechanism
Develop a teaching plan for a client taking antiHTN medications?
-Explain how and when to take medications
-Reason for medication
-Necessity of compliance
-Need for follow-up visits while on medications
-Need for certain lab tests
-Vital sign parameters while initiating therapy