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HESI NCLEX-RN EXAMINATION > Musculoskeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (38)
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1

What are the common symptoms of rheumatoid arthristis?

-morning stiffness
-weight loss
-swelling of both hands and wrists

2

What methods would a nurse use to assess rheumatoid arthritis?

-Inspection
-Palpation
-strength testing
* Avoid ROM b/c ROM promotes pain

3

What activity recommendations should the nurse provide to a client with rheumatoid arthritis?

-Do not exercise painful, swollen joints
-Do not exercise any joint to the point of pain
-Perform exercises slowly and smoothly; avoid jerky movements

4

Avoiding sunlight is key in the management of

Lupus erythematosus

5

What four factors trigger lupus?

1. Sunlight
2. Stress
3. Pregnancy
4. Drugs

6

What population is at the highest risk for osteoporosis?

Postmenopausal, thin white women.

7

What is a great source of calcium that is available over the counter encouraged for osteoporosis?

Tums

8

The main cause of factures in older adults is

Osteoporosis

9

What are the four classifications of fractures

Complete: A break across the entire cross section of the bone
Incomplete: A break across only part of the bone
Closed: No break in the skin
Open: Broken bone protrudes through skin or mucous membranes

10

What type of fracture is more difficult to heal: An extracapsular fracture or an intracapsular fracture?

Intracapsular because of a decrease in blood flow

11

How do you properly used crutches?

The client advances both crutches and the impaired leg at the same time. The client then swings the uninvolved leg a head to the crutches

12

What side is the cane placed on?

The affected side

13

What time frame is a patient most at risk for developing a fat emboli post fracture?

36 hours

14

What is the initial symptom of a fat emboli?

Confusion due to hypoxemia

15

In clients with hip fractures what is the most common complication?

Thromboemboli

16

What are prevention strategies for thromboemoli?

-Passive ROM
-use of elastic stockings
-elevation of the foot of the bed to 25 degrees
-low dose heparin therapy

17

Where do you check for compartment syndrome?

Distal to the injury

18

What are the 5P's for neurovascular functioning?

Pain
Paresthesia
Pulse
Pallor
Paralysis

19

What is the biggest complication post op for a joint replacement/.

Infection

20

Fractures of bone predispose the client to anemia, especially if long bones are involved. Check pts hematocrit....

every 3-4 days to monitor erythropoiesis

21

What complications are immobile clients prone to

-Skin integrity
-formation of urinary calculi- limit milk
-venous thrombosis

22

How long do you elevate the stump post operatively?

24 hours

23

What happens if the stump is elevated too high?

contracture

24

What time frame do you not elevate the stump?

after 48 hours

25

how often does an amputee need to be in the prone position?

Three times a day to prevent hip flexion contracture

26

Differentiate between RA and OA in terms of joint involvement?

RA - occurs bilaterally
OA- occurs asymmetrically

27

Identify the categories of drugs commonly used to treat arthritis

-NSAIDS
-Corticosteroids

28

Identify pain relief interventions for clients with arthritis

-Warm, moist heat
-Diversionary activities
-medications

29

What measures should the nurse encourage female clients to take to prevent osteoporosis?

-Possible estrogen replacement after menopause
-High calcium and vitamin D intake beginning in early adulthood
-Calcium supplements after menopause
-weight bearing exercise

30

What are the common side effects of salicylates?

-Gi irritation,
-tinnitus
-thrombocytopenia
-mild liver enzyme elevation