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define: population

: group of organisms belonging to the same species living in a specified geographical location.


define: gene pool

sum of all the genes and all of their alleles within a specific population/entire species.


define: allele frequency

proportion of one allele of a gene compared to all other alleles of the same gene.


p =

frequency of dominant allele = no. dominant alleles/total number of alleles


q =

frequency of recessive allele = no. recessive alleles/total number of alleles


allele frequencies are between [ , ] and must add to __

0-1, 1


alleles are FIXED when

the frequency of a particular allele is 1


describe fixed alleles

(homozygous, all show the same phenotype for the trait). Because an alternative allele is lost, the gene pool has less variation.


define: hardy-weinberg principle

• Allele frequencies in populations tend to remain constant, generation after generation, if:
o The population is large
o The population is closed (no immigration/emigration)
o All matings are equally fertile, producing equal numbers of offspring
o Members of the population must mate at random


describe hardy-weinberg equilibrium

allele frequencies tend to stay constant over generations, and add to noe.


describe hardy-weinberg equation

p^2 (prop pop with PP) + 2pq (prop pop with Pp+ q^2 (prop pop with pp) = 1