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Flashcards in General digestion and kidneys I Deck (32):
1

Alcohol and Aspirin are absorbed across the stomach mucosa because they ate ____-soluble.

lipid

2

Aspirin causes _____as it passes through the gastric mucosa, and can be significant if large amounts of aspirin are given.

bleeding

3

What is the only function of the stomach that is essential for life?

Intrinsic factor

4

Intrinsic factor comes from ____ cells and is essential for the absorbtion of __________.

Parietal
vitamin B12

5

If you remove the stomach, patients need intrinsic factor, if not, will suffer ______ ________, a deficiency of vitamin B12

Pernicious anemia

6

What is anemia?

An abnormally low RBC count

7

What is iron-deficient anemia?

No iron available

8

What is aplastic anemia?

Destruction of bone marrow, replaced with fatty cells and fibrous tissue

9

As we age, less and less lactase is produced, or becomes inactive to some degree, this can cause 2 things:

Lactose intolerance
Lactase deficiency

10

Gallstones can can obstruct ____ or ______ bile ducts. Can be___ the size of a dime. Can have ______ or shock wave therapy

cystic or common
¼
surgery

11

What forms gallstones?

Cholesterol crystals that become hardened by precipitation of inorganic salts

12

The kidneys continually cleanse the _______ and adjust its composition. Kidneys get rid of ______ waste

Blood
Liquid

13

What 3 things do the kidneys regulate?

1- Regulate blood volume
2- Regulate BP
3- Regulate H20/Salts and Acid/Base

14

What are the 4 ways waste is eliminated?

1- GI tract- feces
2- Lungs- CO2, H2O, Heat, Garlic
3- Skin, H2O, heat, salt, a little CO2
4- Urinary system- liquid waste/urine

15

What composes the urinary system?

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra

16

Physically describe the kidneys.

A reddish-brown organ shaped like a kidney bean
Retroperitoneal, just above the waste
Right kidney- slightly larger because right lobe is slightly bigger
~5 inches long, 160 grams, almost like a bar of soap

17

The kidney has a concave border faces ______ towards spinal cord where the ____ is.

medially
Hilus

18

What is the hilus of the kidney?

where vessels/nerves enter/exit

19

What is the capsule of the kidneys made from? What surrounds the kidney?

Dense-irregular CT
Adipose tissue

20

Describe the renal cortex?

Contains blood-filtering mechanisms, ~1cm thick
Tissue looks consistent

21

The renal medulla has 8-18 renal ________ with a renal _______ at the tip of the pyramid.

Pyramids
Papilla

22

Renal yyramids are triangular _______ wedges (think 3-D)
Made of renal _______ and _______

striated
renal tubules and vessels

23

Renal columns are extensions of the renal ______, in between the renal _______.

cortex
pyramids

24

What is the renal sinus and what occupies it?

A medial cavity
It’s occupied by: renal blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and urine-collecting structures
Other than that, filled with adipose tissue

25

What is the renal pelvis? What does it do?

A funnel-shaped enlargement of the ureter
We need to collect urine from each renal papilla
An enlargement of ureter in renal sinus

26

What is a minor calyx?
How many are there?

Each renal papilla has a cup-like structure beneath it to catch urine droplets
8-18 pyramids, so then 8-18 minor calyces, 1 per pyramid

27

How is a major calyx formed?

By 2-3 minor calyces

28

Hows is the renal pelvis formed?

By 2-3 major calyces

29

What is the functional unit of the kidney? How many are there?

Nephron
1.25 million

30

What 2 structures comprise a nephron?

Renal corpuscle
Renal tubules

31

Where are renal corpuscles?

In the cortex

32

Where are renal tubules?

In the pyramid of the renal medulla