Flashcards in General digestion and kidneys I Deck (32):
Alcohol and Aspirin are absorbed across the stomach mucosa because they ate ____-soluble.
Aspirin causes _____as it passes through the gastric mucosa, and can be significant if large amounts of aspirin are given.
What is the only function of the stomach that is essential for life?
Intrinsic factor comes from ____ cells and is essential for the absorbtion of __________.
If you remove the stomach, patients need intrinsic factor, if not, will suffer ______ ________, a deficiency of vitamin B12
What is anemia?
An abnormally low RBC count
What is iron-deficient anemia?
No iron available
What is aplastic anemia?
Destruction of bone marrow, replaced with fatty cells and fibrous tissue
As we age, less and less lactase is produced, or becomes inactive to some degree, this can cause 2 things:
Gallstones can can obstruct ____ or ______ bile ducts. Can be___ the size of a dime. Can have ______ or shock wave therapy
cystic or common
What forms gallstones?
Cholesterol crystals that become hardened by precipitation of inorganic salts
The kidneys continually cleanse the _______ and adjust its composition. Kidneys get rid of ______ waste
What 3 things do the kidneys regulate?
1- Regulate blood volume
2- Regulate BP
3- Regulate H20/Salts and Acid/Base
What are the 4 ways waste is eliminated?
1- GI tract- feces
2- Lungs- CO2, H2O, Heat, Garlic
3- Skin, H2O, heat, salt, a little CO2
4- Urinary system- liquid waste/urine
What composes the urinary system?
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra
Physically describe the kidneys.
A reddish-brown organ shaped like a kidney bean
Retroperitoneal, just above the waste
Right kidney- slightly larger because right lobe is slightly bigger
~5 inches long, 160 grams, almost like a bar of soap
The kidney has a concave border faces ______ towards spinal cord where the ____ is.
What is the hilus of the kidney?
where vessels/nerves enter/exit
What is the capsule of the kidneys made from? What surrounds the kidney?
Describe the renal cortex?
Contains blood-filtering mechanisms, ~1cm thick
Tissue looks consistent
The renal medulla has 8-18 renal ________ with a renal _______ at the tip of the pyramid.
Renal yyramids are triangular _______ wedges (think 3-D)
Made of renal _______ and _______
renal tubules and vessels
Renal columns are extensions of the renal ______, in between the renal _______.
What is the renal sinus and what occupies it?
A medial cavity
It’s occupied by: renal blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and urine-collecting structures
Other than that, filled with adipose tissue
What is the renal pelvis? What does it do?
A funnel-shaped enlargement of the ureter
We need to collect urine from each renal papilla
An enlargement of ureter in renal sinus
What is a minor calyx?
How many are there?
Each renal papilla has a cup-like structure beneath it to catch urine droplets
8-18 pyramids, so then 8-18 minor calyces, 1 per pyramid
How is a major calyx formed?
By 2-3 minor calyces
Hows is the renal pelvis formed?
By 2-3 major calyces
What is the functional unit of the kidney? How many are there?
What 2 structures comprise a nephron?
Where are renal corpuscles?
In the cortex