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Name 5 risk factors for schizophrenia

Genetics (50% identical twin chance)
Substance abuse (inc risk if start younger/ heavier)
Poor development/ low socioeconomic status
Low birth weight/ low O2 at birth


Name 3 positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Delusions (Untrue belief)- Often grandeur or paranoia
Hallucinations (False perceptions)- Mainly auditory
Thought echo/ thought broadcasting


Name 5 negative symptoms of schizophrenia

Avolition (lack of motivation- stop wash/ eat etc)
Anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure)
Flat emotion
Alogia (poverty of speech)
Asociality (lack of desire for relationships)


What are the three components of the GCS?

Motor (1-6)
Verbal (1-5)
Eyes (1-4)
Total 3 is worst, 15 is best (<8 is severe)


Which gender has a higher stroke incidence?

25% higher in men but more women due to older F population


Name 10 RF's for a stroke

Age, raised BP, smoking, obesity, diabetes, afrocarribean, stress, alcohol, previous stroke/ TIA, cocaine, family history, high cholesterol


What are the diagnostic criteria for GAD (generalised anxiety disorder)?

Excessive worry for more days than not for >6months
Three or more of: (Restlessness, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbance, low concentration)


What are some possible caused of GAD (generalised anxiety disorder)?

Brain area overactivity- Amygdala
NT imbalance (serotonin/ adrenaline)
Traumatic experience/ long term illness/ substance abuse


What are some of the symptoms of depression in MDD or the depression phase of bipolar? (10)

Sad, hopeless, lack of energy, concentration difficulty, loss of interest, guilt, despair, sleep difficulty, decreased appetite, pessimism, self doubt


What are some of the symptoms of the mania phase of bipolar disorder? (9)

Elation, quick talking, full of energy, self important, new ideas + plans, spend more money, more promiscuous, drink more, increased libido


What are the two types of bipolar disorder?

I (raging)- Severe mainia (>1wk) affecting ability to function combined with severe depression
II (swinging)- Hypomania with severe depression with possible level mood periods


What is cyclothymia?

(BIPOLAR) Hypomania episodes with mild depressive episodes (mild form of bipolar)


What is rapid cycling (bipolar)?

4 or more mania/ hypomania/ depressive episodes within 12 months (can occur with any type of bipolar)


What are some of the risk factors for a foetus developing spina bifida?

Family history
Mother: Low folic acid, taking valproate/ carbamazepine, has diabetes or obesity


What % of babies are breech at a) 28wks b) 37wks c) how is this corrected?

a) 20% b) 3%
External cephalic version offered (50% success)
Then caesarean offered at 39wks (normal time)


NICE guidelines suggest long term management following a stroke should include what 'blood thinner' medication?

Anti-platelet (e.g. clopidogrel)


Generalised anxiety disorder is linked to which over-active brain region?



What area's control a) understanding/ comprehension of speech b)motor formation of speech?

a) Wernickes - understanding of speech
b) Brocha's - motor speech induction


The sneezing reflex is triggered by sensory stimulation of which cranial nerve?



How is folic acid (Vit B9) activated?

Via enzymatic activation (Dyhydrofolate reductase- takes place in the liver)
Biologically active form is tetrahydrofolate


Folate deficiency is accelerated by consumption of what?



Problems with folate deficiency are often linked with what other deficiency?

Vitamin B12 (can present with megaloblastic anaemia)


If a P presents in adulthood with a congenital abnormality, they complain of headaches but were asymptomatic in childhood. They are most likely to be diagnosed with?

Chiari T1 malformation


The DNFB1 mutation is associated with what?

Mutation in the GJB2 gene
Most common form of congenital deafness


Define pharmacokinetics

(What the body does to the drug)
The branch of pharmacology concerned with the movement of drugs within the body


Define pharmacodynamics

(What the drug does to the body)
The branch of pharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs and the mechanism of their action


What are the fraser guidelines?

Guidelines set out saying a doctor could provide treatment (contraception) for an under 16 providing they met conditions (such as understanding


What are dermatomes?

Form from the lateral wall of each somite in the embryo. They are a region of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root


Intramuscular injections in the gluteal region should only be given in what quadrant?

Upper lateral


Describe the path of the needle from skin to CSF in a lumbar puncture

Skin > ligamentum flavum (1st give) > dura mater (2nd give) > now in subarachnoid space