Flashcards in General Stats and Odds Ratios Deck (35):

1

## What are some common types of analysis?

###
Univariate statistics

Bivariate statistics

Multivariate statistics

2

## What are univariate statistics?

###
-Frequency

-Mean

-Median

-Mode

-Standard deviation, etc.

3

## What are bivariate statistics?

### Relationship between 2 variables. Chi-square, Pearson's correlation (r), t-test.

4

## What are multivariate statistics?

### Relationships among more than 2 variables

5

## What are the four main Scales of Measurement?

###
NOIR

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

6

## What are nominal measurements?

###
Measures mere differences (ex. hometowns, gender)

7

## What are ordinal measurements?

### Measures differences + rank order (ex. place finish in a race; SES [working class, middle class, etc.], religiosity)

8

## What are interval measurements?

### Measures differences + rank order + equal distances between values of the variable (ex. IQ - few examples of these non-meaningful zero values)

9

## What are ratio measurements?

### Measures differences + rank order + equal distances between values of the variable + true, meaningful zero point (ex. income)

10

## What two Scales of Measurement are categorical/dichotamous?

### Nominal, Ordinal

11

## What two Scales of Measurement are continuous?

### Interval, Ratio

12

## What is the definition and examples of Nominal?

###
2 or more categories/groups; measures differences

(ex: eye color, city of birth)

13

## What is the definition and examples of Ordinal?

###
2 or more categories/groups with order/rank; measures differences + order

(ex: place finished in a race, SES status)

14

## What is the definition and examples of Interval?

###
Numerical value measured on a continuum; measures differences + order + equal units of measurement

(ex: temperature, IQ)

15

## What is the definition and examples of Ratio?

###
Numerical value measured on a continuum; measures differences + order + equal units of measurement + true/absolute zero point

(ex: height, weight)

16

## What things should you keep in mind with Scales of Measurement?

###
-How we measure phenomena is a choice (ex: race, gender)

-Technically, the statistical test you run depends on: how your variables are measured, your research question

-It is common for researchers to break test & measurement rules

17

## What statistical test is used for nominal vs. nominal measurements?

### Chi-squared

18

## What statistical test is used for Nominal (2 groups only) vs. Interval or Ratio?

### t-test

19

## What statistical test is used for Nominal (2 or more groups, 1 IV only) vs. Interval or Ratio?

### One way analysis of variance (F-test) - ANOVA

20

## What statistical test is used for Nominal (2 or more groups, 2 or more IV) vs. Interval or Ratio?

### Factorial design analysis of variance (F-test)

21

## What statistical test is used for Ordinal/Interval/Ratio vs. Ordinal/Interval/Ratio?

### Pearson Correlation Coefficient

22

## What is the most common stat you'll see with categorical outcomes?

###
Chi-Square test and accompanying p-value

-Categorical = dichotomous outcomes = yes/no values (often as %'s)

23

## What are quantitative outcomes also called?

### continuous variables

24

## What is an example of when you'd do a Chi-Square test?

###
Ex. comparison of the % of men vs % of women who are diagnosed with major depression

Ex. Comparison of freshman, sophomore, junior and senior UMD undergrads earning at least 1 "F" letter grade.

25

## When is a Chi-Square test significant?

### When P-value significant data

26

## What does a t-test do?

###
Another way of comparing values.

-Checking to see if means are significantly different

-T-test designed to compare MEANS - mean values are generally generated for continuous values

27

## What is the Odds Ratio (OR)?

### Measure of association between two variables (ex. an IV and a DV)

28

## What is another way of defining OR?

### "Odds" that some outcome would occur in the presence of a predictor (IV) vs. absence of the predictor

29

## When are Odds Ratios often discussed within medicine?

###
Case-control studies

-Though they are approbate for all kinds of categorical data

30

## In many studies we don't actually know incidence data. What do we use to estimate relative risk in these cases?

### Odds Ratio

31

## What does OR = 1 mean?

### Exposure does not affect odds of outcome.

32

## What does OR > 1 mean?

### Exposure associated with higher odds of outcome.

33

## What does OR

### Exposure associated with lower odds of outcome.

34

## What is the equation for OR?

### AD/BC

35