Genetic Engineering/Biotechnology (BE #6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Genetic Engineering/Biotechnology (BE #6) Deck (16):

What is recombinant DNA?

DNA that contains information from 2 different species of organisms.


What are the 2 major goals of recombinant DNA technology involving the use of bacteria?

1. gene amplification - make lots of copies of gene of interest.

2. protein synthesis - get the bacteria to synthesize the protein coded for on the gene of interest.


What is big difference between eukaryotic & prokaryotic chromosomes?

Eukaryotic chromosomes have noncoding (introns) sequences, while prokaryotic chromosomes have only coding (entrains) regions.


Why can't eukaryotic DNA be put directly into prokaryotic chromosomes?

Prokarytic chromosomes are unable to read the noncoding sequences that are present in eukaryotic DNA.


cDNA is made in a process called __________, which is produced from mRNA.

reverse transcription


What is the name of the enzyme that catalyzes reverse transcription?

reverse transcriptase


cDNA can be inserted into a bacterial chromosome because it lacks the (coding or noncoding) sequences?



Order of cDNA & reverse transcription

DNA - pre mRNA - mRNA - mRNA/cDNA hybrid - denature to get SS cDNA - DS DNA


What enzymes are synthesized by bacterial cells to cut apart & destroy foreign bacteriophage (viral) DNA molecules?

Restriction enzymes

These are used for the purpose of recombining genes.


What are the resulting staggered cuts on the DNA called:

sticky ends


T or F
In order to insert a eukaryotic gene into a prokaryotic plasmid, the same restriction enzyme must be used on both.



What is a common method of DNA amplification?

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)


What does heat do to a double stranded nucleic acid molecule like DNA? What is this process called?

Heat breaks the hydrogen bonds between the 2 strands.

It's called denaturing.


Briefly explain the 3 steps of PCR.

1. Denaturing - heat DNA so strands split
2. Annealing - cool down & add primers; primers bind to single strands of DNA
3. Extension - warm up; add free nucleotides and DNA polymerase to finish replication. Original strands act as template.


Is PCR done in vitro or in vivo?

in vitro (in a test tube)


Give 2 examples of successful introduction & expression of a human gene by a bacterium.

1. vaccines
2. human growth hormone
3. insulin