Flashcards in Intro. to Microbiology (BE #1) Deck (36):
study of microorganisms
organisms invisible to the naked eye
Differentiate between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells. Give examples of each.
1. Prokaryotic - "before nucleus" - cells with no internal membrane-bound structures. Includes only bacteria
2. Eukaryotic - "after nucleus" - have internal membrane-bound structures; includes organisms such as protistans, fungi, animals (including helminths), and plants.
Name 6 groups of pathogens we will study. ID if they are cellular or acellular
1. Bacteria - cellular
2. Viruses - acellular
3. Prions - acellular
4. Protistans - cellular
5. Fungi - cellular
6. Helminths - cellular
Name the two major groups of bacteria.
2. Archaebacteria (no known pathogens)
Which group includes pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria?
What are the 4 basic shapes of bacteria?
1. bacillus/bacilli - rod
2. coccus / cocci - spherical
3. spirillum / spirilli - spiral
4. vibrio - curved rod
Give an example of a disease caused by bacteria.
Describe organisms belonging to Protista.
Single-celled, eukaryotic; some are animal-like, some are plant-like
Give an example of a disease caused by a protistan.
giardiasis ("don't drink the water")
Name the 2 types of fungi. Which one is unicellular & which one is multicellular?
1. yeasts - unicellular
2. molds - multicellular
Give an example of a disease caused by a fungus.
vaginal yeast infection
What is the basic structure of a virus?
a piece of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) enclosed by a protein coat (capsid)
Give an example of a disease caused by a virus.
3. Hepatitis A
4. chicken pox
What is the structure of a prion?
How does is cause disease?
by mutating other proteins
Give an example of a disease caused by a prion.
Mad cow disease
Father of chemotherapy
1. One of the Fathers of microbiology
2. Described the first microorganism (it was a fungus)
3. First described "cellular" in cork; discovery led to the formulation of the cell theory.
Discovered first antibiotic (penicillin)
1. Developed the germ theory of disease (microbes cause disease & specific microbes cause specific diseases) AND
2. Developed the agar plate method for culturing microbes.
Developed the first vaccination by inoculating people with cowpox to produce immunity against small pox.
1. Used a curved neck flask to finally disprove the theory of spontaneous generation.
2. Developed anthrax & rabies vaccines
Poured boiled chicken broth into a flask; microbes grew; concluded that spontaneous generation does occur (flask was not sterile)
11. Disproved the theory of spontaneous generation for macroscopic organisms (fly maggots and meat experiment).
One of the fathers of microbiology;
Described the first bacteria
Put broth in a flask, sealed it, and boiled it; thought he had disproved spontaneous generation, but critiques said he had just proved that the process required air.
15. Discovered that childbed fever was due to doctors not washing their hands after performing autopsies.
16. First to develop antisepsis; treated wounds with bandages soaked in carbolic acid.
17. Suggested that Koch try using agar to thicken culture media
Explain the theory of spontaneous generation.
theory that living organisms can develop from non-living organisms
Explain how Jenner discovered the first official vaccine for smallpox.
He observed that cow maids who had cowpox (blisters) seemed immune to smallpox. He inoculated a boy with fluid from a cowpox blister & he came down with it. He then injected him with fluid from a smallpox blister & he didn't get it.
ID the 4 postulates of the germ theory of disease (Koch's).
1. The causative agent must be present in every individual with the disease;
2. The causative agent must be isolated and grown in pure culture in a lab;
3. The pure culture must cause disease when inoculated in a healthy animal;
4. The causative agent must be reisolated from the animal & reidentified in pure culture.
Why was agar more successful than gelatin as an additive to thicken culture media?
Agar has a higher melting point.
Explain how Fleming accidentally discovered penicillin
Fleming had inoculated plates with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus. Instead of tossing the plate in the trash, he took a closer look at the plate. The colonies of Staphylococcus that had immediately surrounded the fungus had been destroyed, whereas other colonies further away were normal. He set out to discover what antibacterial compound the fungus was producing.
Explain 2 exceptions to the postulates of the germ theory.
1. Some pathogens will not grow on artificial media in the lab (ex. viruses can only survive and multiply within living host cells
2. Some pathogens will not infect lab animals – many pathogens are species specific (they will only infect 1 species of animals); some human pathogens will not infect animals