Prokaryotes: Classification (BE #3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prokaryotes: Classification (BE #3) Deck (23):
1

Who introduces binomial nomenclature?

Linnaeus

2

What is binomial nomenclature?

Each species is designated by 2 names.

3

Defne "species" using the eukaryotic definition.

Species is groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populaitons that are reproductively isolated from other groups.

4

Why do bacterial species no fit the traditional definition of species?

Bacteria are able to exchange/share genetic information through conjugation, so are not reproductively isolated.

5

How are bacterial species defined?

Term "species" is used more as a category of convenience (they are grouped based on similarities).

6

Name a bacterial genus.

Streptococcus

7

Name a bacterial species.

Streptococcus pyogenes

8

Differentiate between artificial & natural systems of classification.

Artificial - the Linnaean scheme; grouped based on basis of visible similarities

 

Natural - grouped based on evolutionary relatedness (phylogenetic)

9

List the 3 domains proposed by Woese. ID which are prokaryotic & which are eukaryotic.

  1. Eukarya (E)
  2. Bacteria (P)
  3. Archaea (P)

10

How are archaebacteria different from the true bacteria?

  1. Different cell membrane structure
  2. Cell wall present, but not composed of peptidoglycan
  3. live only in extreme conditions
  4. Ex. are:  halophiles (salt), thermoacidophiles (heat)

 

11

What are the 6 Kingdoms now widely accepted by many biologists & the Domain  to which they belong?

  1. Domain Bacteria:  Kingdom Bacteria
  2. Domain Archaea:  Kingdom Archaea
  3. Domain Eukarya:  
    1. Kingdom Protista
    2. Kingdom Fungi
    3. Kingdom Plantae
    4. Kingdom Animalia

 

12

What manual do we follow for the classification of bacteria?  

Does it follow an artificial or natural system of classification?

Bergey's Manual

artificial

13

What does "0157:H7" indicate when if follows the species name Escherichia coli?

Indicates the strain of bacterial species.

14

List some of the major methods used to identify bacteria?

  1. morphological characteristics (shape, arrangement, presence of spores, flagella, capsules)
  2. staining
  3. biochemical tests (does it ferment the milk sugar lactose?)

15

Name 3 G(+) bacilli

  1. Bacillis subtilis
  2. Bacillis anthracis
  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

16

Name 3 G(+) cocci 

  1. Streptococcus pyogenes
  2. Streptococcus pnuemoniae
  3. Staplylococcus aureus

17

Name 3 G(-) bacilli

  1. Escherichia coli
  2. Proteus mirabilis
  3. Enterobacter cloacae

18

What phylum includes the G(-) bacteria

Phylum proteobacteria

19

What phylum includes the G(+) bacteria?

Phylum firmicutes

20

Name 3 species of endospore forming bacilli (rods).

  1. Clostridium tetani - tetanus
  2. Clostridium perfringens - gas gangrene & food poisoning
  3. Bacillus antracis - anthrax

21

What is a unique characteristic of the Mycoplasmas?

no rigid cell wall

 

22

Name a species of spirochete & the disease it causes.

Treponema pallidum - syphillis

23

What 2 groups of bacteria were once though to be viruses due to their small size & the fact they are obligate intracellular paracites?

  1. Rickettsias (Phylum Proteobacteria)
  2. Chlamydia