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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (25)
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1

What is a gene?

a unit of inheritance, that corresponds to a characteristic, or as a segment of DNA that carries information, usually for making proteins

2

Allelles

Variable forms of a single gene. Is responsible for a specific trait, or distinguishable feature of a characteristic. ex. white or purple flowers

3

Homozygous

Two copies of same allele

4

Heterozygous

Two different alleles for a gene

5

genotype

genetic makeup

6

phenotype

the actual appearance of the traits on the individual

7

Separation of homologous pairs

In meiosis.

8

Pedigree Analysis

to track history of how a genetic trait arose in an individual

9

Punnett square

analysis to predict probability of a genetic trait arising in a future generation

10

Karyotype

display of one's chromosomes according to size and centromere position.

11

Genome make up

more than 21,000 genes

12

Anauplidy

An abnormal number of chromosomes

13

nondisjunction

chromosomes fail to separate properly during meiosis I or II

14

Trisomy 21

extra copy of chromosome 21. Resulting in Down Syndrome. Mild to severe physical and mental defects; high survival rates

15

Translocation

Chromosomal abnormality in which there is a rearrangement of parts of different, non homologous chromosomes.

16

Cytogenetic analysis

chromosomes are directly observed and analyzed for aneuploidies and translocations.

17

amniocentesis

Done to determine if chromosomal abnormality is present in cells of a fetus. small amount of amniotic fluid removed with aid of ultrasonography.

18

Mitogen

a chemical used once cells are collected to stimulate cells to undergo cell division

19

Colchine

chemical added to cells in metaphase to freeze the mitotic spindles. used to create chromosome spread. They are stained in a dye that gives them their banding pattern

20

Trisomy 13/ Platau Syndrome

severe nervous system, muscular, and organ defects; death usually occurs in infancy

21

Trisomy 18/ Edwards Syndrome

mental and physical defects; death often in infancy

22

Trisomy 21/ Down Syndrome

mild to severe physical and mental defects; high survival rates

23

Monosomy X/ Turner Syndrome

all females; short stature; underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics; infertility

24

XXY/ Klinefelter Syndrome

all male; few detectable symptoms; reduced fertility

25

Materials used to make onion root tip squash slide for identification of cells in mitosis

water bath at 60°C
onion with root tip
Feulgen stain
1 M HCl
water
45% acetic acid