Flashcards in Geographical Issues + Coastal Management Deck (16)
What are the six major issues in Australia?
- coastal management
- air quality
- land and water management
- spatial inequality
- waste management
- urban growth and decline
How many kilometres of coast does Australia have?
Why do coastal environments need to be managed? (5)
- 9/10 live within 50km of coast
- 2030: 21 million near coast
- tourism destination
- industry: transport and ports
- produces 50% of GDP
What are the key features of the coastal environment? (3)
- coastal zone
- water environments
What is an EIS?
Environmental Impact Statement
- shows likely physical, social and economic impacts on environments (when developing on coast)
What are some possible solutions to erosion? (6)
- sea wall
- rip rap
- beach nourishment
- dune regeneration
- marsh creation
How are coastal landforms formed? (2)
Erosion and deposition
How are sand dunes formed?
Wind blows dry sand into back of the beach, which is then trapped and stabilised by vegetation such as spinifex.
What is the difference between constructive and destructive waves?
Constructive are small and carry materials into swash and deposit, while destructive waves are large and erode.
How is sediment transported? (5)
- long shore drift
- storm surges
Are beaches formed by constructive or destructive waves?
How are waves formed?
Wind blows over the ocean, can originate kilometres away from the coast.
What three factors does the size of a wave depend on?
- wind speed
- distance travelled by wind
- duration of time the wind blows
How are lagoons formed?
Sediments are deposited into the beach in a place sheltered from strong winds and wave attack.
How are dune blowouts formed?
Waves are refracted toward a headland and release energy either side of it