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Flashcards in Geographical Issues + Coastal Management Deck (16)
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1

What are the six major issues in Australia?

- coastal management
- air quality
- land and water management
- spatial inequality
- waste management
- urban growth and decline

2

How many kilometres of coast does Australia have?

37,000 km

(11,000 beaches)

3

Why do coastal environments need to be managed? (5)

- 9/10 live within 50km of coast
- 2030: 21 million near coast
- tourism destination
- industry: transport and ports
- produces 50% of GDP

4

What are the key features of the coastal environment? (3)

- interface
- coastal zone
- water environments

5

What is an EIS?

Environmental Impact Statement

- shows likely physical, social and economic impacts on environments (when developing on coast)

6

What are some possible solutions to erosion? (6)

- sea wall
- groyne
- rip rap
- beach nourishment
- dune regeneration
- marsh creation

7

How are coastal landforms formed? (2)

Erosion and deposition

8

How are sand dunes formed?

Wind blows dry sand into back of the beach, which is then trapped and stabilised by vegetation such as spinifex.

9

What is the difference between constructive and destructive waves?

Constructive are small and carry materials into swash and deposit, while destructive waves are large and erode.

10

How is sediment transported? (5)

- waves
- long shore drift
- rips
- tides
- storm surges

11

Are beaches formed by constructive or destructive waves?

Constructive

12

How are waves formed?

Wind blows over the ocean, can originate kilometres away from the coast.

13

What three factors does the size of a wave depend on?

- wind speed
- distance travelled by wind
- duration of time the wind blows

14

How are lagoons formed?

Sediments are deposited into the beach in a place sheltered from strong winds and wave attack.

15

How are dune blowouts formed?

Waves are refracted toward a headland and release energy either side of it

16

What are estuaries?

Waterways where a river meets the sea