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Flashcards in Geography Deck (74):

Where are volcanoes most likely to be found

On the boundaries of tectonic plates or often on the coasts of continents or countries.


What occurs at a destructive volcanic margin

The less dense oceanic crust slips under the continental crust and the friction created melts the rock turning it into magma, which shoots upwards towards the surface.


What occurs at a constructive volcanic margin

The two plates move in opposite directions leaving a direct path to the surface for the magma beneath the crust. This lava then cools to form a gentle-sided ridge


What is ash fall

A product of a volcano which can cover more distance and be more destructive overall then lava due to its immense weight when in mass.


What is a shield volcano

A gentle-sided volcano which forms when lava seeps into the crust and then spreads over the landscape.


What is a composite volcano

A steep-sided volcano which forms when the lava shoots out the crater and then solidifies on the slopes of the mountain.


What is a caldera

A volcano which has a large crater at the top after the volcano collapsed on itself during a violent eruption.


What is are intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks.

+intrusive igneous rock is formed when magma inside the volcano cools in the magma chamber, creating crystals.

+ extrusive igneous rock is formed when lava cools quickly on the surface after an eruption.





How can volcanic eruptions be anticipated.

+ the surface becomes heated as the rising magma comes into contact with it (heat-seeking cameras)
+ earthquakes occur due to the amount of lava moving beneath the surface (seismometers)
+ bulges and swells appear as magma bubbles (tilt meters to see if slope has changed)
+ steam comes out the volcano as the magma bubbles


Why do people live in volcanic areas

+ fertile land
+ increased tourism
+ geothermal energy
+ valuable metals are produced by volcanoes


What are crude birth rate and crude death rate

+ Crude birth rate is the babies born in year per thousand population
+ Crude death rate is deaths each year per thousand population.


What are general fertility and infant mortality

+ General fertility is the annual live births per thousand women
+ Infant mortality is the death of under one year olds each year per thousand live births


What are life expectancy and dependancy ratio

+ life expectancy is the average lifespan of a population
+ dependancy ratio is calculation based on children/economically active.


What are population census and natural increase

+ population increase is the total count of people in a certain area
+ natural increase is the birth rate minus the death rate


What is a human population density factor

A factor that makes a population either high or low that is man-made such as government stability.


What is a physical population factor

A factor that makes a population density high or low that is determined by a country’s physical features such as relief.


What are some human factors for a high or low population density

+ high: good job opportunities in booming industries, stable government and people like to live near social groups.

+ low: unstable government, limited job opportunities or they are at war.


16 and understand are known as

The young dependants


16-65 are known as the...

Economically active


65+ are known as the...

Old dependants


What side are females on the population pyramid and what side are males

Females= right
Males= left


What does it mean if a population pyramid has a sloping triangular shape

+ High birth rate
+ low life expectancy
+ high death rate


What does it mean if a population pyramid has a pyramidal shape

+ High birth rate
+ Fall in death rate
+ increasing life expectancy


What does it mean if a population pyramid has an rectangular shape that curves off at the top

+ declining birth rate
+ low death rate
+ high life expectancy


What does it mean if a population pyramid has an oval shape

+ low birth rate
+ low death rate
+ very long life expectancy


What is an ELDC

An economically less developed country


What is an EMDC

An economically more developed country


What are the effects of an ageing population

+ Increased number of economically active
+ more pressure on workers to provide for young dependants
+ more money spent on elderly healthcare instead of education and other important sectors


What are the problems of a youthful population

+ increase in money spent on education infrastructure instead of things like healthcare
+ increase pressure for economically active to provide for the children
+ lack of housing as family’s grow


What is rural urban migration

The movement of people who live in rural areas into larger towns and cities.


What are rural urban migration pull factors

A positive reason to move to the cities. Examples include: more reliable food supply, more and better paid jobs in the city and better housing.


What are rural urban migration push factors

Negative reasons that are pushing people out of rural areas. Examples include: possibility of famine or drought, lack of education and little or no transport.





What is altitude, relief and drainage of a landscape.

Altitude= height of a place or part of land above sea level

Relief= height and shape of the landscape

Drainage=surface water feature such as rivers or lakes


What is an igneous rock

A rock formed from a volcano


What is a sedimentary rock

Layers of salt, sand and fossils compressed together.


What are metamorphic rocks

Igneous or sedimentary rocks that have formed from immense heat or pressure


What is weathering

Breaking up and decomposition of rocks due to factors such as hydraulic action. An example of physical weathering is freeze-thaw and an example of chemical weathering is carbonation.


What is erosion and what are the agents of erosion

The transportation of weathered rocks away from their habitat.

The agents of erosion are:
+ wind
+ rivers
+ humans
+ ice


What are the stages of the hydrological cycle (the movement of water)

Percolation (the flow of water through underground soil)
Vegetation interception
Infiltration ( water from the surface sinks into the soil)


What is a watershed, a river channel and the three main types of river channel.

+ A watershed is the boundary that separates two river basins
+ A river channel is the place that a river flows in and the three main types are: meandering, straight and braiding


What are the upper, middle and lower courses in a river

+ the upper stage is the int he mountains near the source and has steel sides, a v-shaped valley and a narrow channel
+ the middle stage is lower down in the,and scale and has a u-shaped valley, meanders and wider channels
+ the lower stage is at the bottom of the landscape and has floodplains, meanders, very wide channel and oxbow lakes.


What is a tributary

A small stream that joins the upper river at a confluence


What is braiding

When the river parts as it goes around an island or another obstacle.


What is a meander

A sharp bend in the river


What is the wetted perimeter in a river

The parts of a river that does not come into contact with the sides of the river.


What are the processes of erosion in a river

- attrition
- corrasion
- corrosion
- hydraulic action


What is attrition

When the material on the river bed collides with other bedload creating smaller pieces.


What is corrasion

When materials rub against the river bank and wear it away until the bank collapses


What is corrosion

When the river rocks forming the bank or bed are dissolved by acid in water


What is hydraulic action

The sheer force of water wearing away the banks


What are the processes of transportation

- traction
- saltation
- suspension
- solution


What is traction

When large boulders roll along the river bed


What is saltation.

When smaller stones bounce along the river bed in a leap-frogging motion.


What is suspension

When fine materials ar carried in the water by the river


What is solution

When dissolved materials are transported by the river


What is vertical erosion and the stages of it.

When a river downcuts through a valley to form a channel.

The stages are:
+ vertical erosion
+ slope transport
+ and the final product


How does a waterfall form

When a river runs over a section of soft rock after going over hard rock, therefore an imbalance in erosion is created and an overhang forms as there is a drip when the soft rock eroded quicker. Over time it is exaggerated and a plunge pool forms until there is no rock supporting the overhang and it crumbles and moves back upstream.


Why do meander form

Due to the presence of pools and riffles.
Pools are slow-flowing areas of a river
Riffles are fast-flowing areas of a river


How does this form the meander

As they flow through the riffles the meanders form as the river erodes a certain place, where it is fastest flowing. It follows the path of the riffles and erodes it there.


How does an ox-bow lake form

Once a meander forms the river neck become narrower until,a flood occurs and the water spills over the landscape. The neck then reforms before it re-enter the river leaving an isolated bend of water.


What is an embankment

A raised river bank to prevent or reduce flooding .


What is a floodplain

The wide,flat area at the bottom of a valley which is often flooded due to its situation next to a river


What is another name for a limestone landscape



How is a limestone pavement formed



What is a stalactite and what is the process of its for action called

It is a rock pike hanging form the ceiling of a cavern that has formed due to carbonation


What is a stalagmite and what is the process of its formation

It is a rock pike rising from the floor of a cavern that has formed due to carbonation


What is a swallow hole

Where a river enters the rock whereas a resurgence is where it re-emerges


What is a bedding plain and a joint

A bedding plain is a horizontal gap between two section of limestone.

A joint is a vertical gap between two sections of limestone


How does a swallow hole form

It forms when a stream flows at the junction of impermeable rock and a limestone block. It seeps down the joint and erodes it to widen it until it can travel down and along the bedding plains and other joints, until it widens them too.


What are example of conflicts in the Yorkshire Dales

Tourists and farmers as dogs can scare livestock or cause them to miscarry.

Tourism and industry and quarrying in the dales causes sound and light pollution.


What are some problems with quarrying in the Yorkshire Dales

+ creates noise in peaceful areas
+ creates scars in the landscape
+ is an eyesore
+ quarry lorries create vibrations and noise damaging foundations and are dangerous to young children


What are some solutions to these problems

- quarries are surrounded with trees to prevent them from creating too much noise and being an eyesore
- quarry lorries only run at certain times of day to prevent them from being too disruptive