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Flashcards in Geology Deck (44):
1

Igneous

A rock that comes from a volcano

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Magma

Liquid rock that is beneath the earths surface

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Lava

Liquid rock this is on the earths surface

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Extrusive

Igneous Rock that forms on the earths surface

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Intrusive

Igneous Rock that is formed inside a volcano

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Mineral

A solid Naturally occurring substance

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Lithosphere

Rigid outer part of the earth

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Athenosphere

Upper layer of the earths mantle

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Crystal

A clear/ Transparent Mineral That resembles ice or glass

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Sedimentary Rock

Rocks formed from sediments deposited by water

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Erosion

removal of soil and rock by natural elements

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Flood Plains

Flat Open land where river sediments a deposited in floods

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Glaciers

Large Bodies of that move down slopes and push boulder/ rocks

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moraines

deposit left by movement of a glacier

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Sandstone

A sedimentary rock made from sand

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Mudstone

Fine grained Sedimentary frock without layering

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Shale

A sedimentary frock made from clay

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Siltstone

A sedimentary rock with grain size between sandstone and mudstone

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conglomerate

Sedimentary frock with different size particles cemented together

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Lime stone

A sedimentary rock formed by the remains of sea organisms

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Coal

A sedimentary rock formed by the remains of dead plants and animals

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Rock salt

common salt occurring naturally as a mineral

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Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks that go through a change

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Metamorphism

The process of a rock going through a change

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mineral ores

rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

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mining

extraction of natural resources from the Earth

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environmental impact statement

study of the possible effects of a planned project on the environment

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rehabilitated

restored to its previous condition

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overburden

waste rock removed from below the topsoil. This rock is replaced when the area is restored.

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open-cut mining

mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

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underground mining

mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface

32

Stone age

he first known period of prehistoric human culture characterized by the use of stone tools

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Alloy

a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements, especially to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion.

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Flint

a hard grey rock consisting of nearly pure silica (chert), occurring chiefly as nodules in chalk.

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percussion flaking

the shaping of a stone implement by striking or chipping off flakes with another stone or a piece of wood, bone, or antler

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fossil

any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

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folding

the buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

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paleontologists

a scientist who studies fossils

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relative age

the age of a rock compared with the age of another rock

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carnivores

animal that eats other animals

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scavengers

animals that eat dead plant and animal material

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mould

cavity in a rock that shows the shape of the hard parts of an organism; types of fungi found growing on the surface of foods

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trace fossils

fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed

44

extinct

describes volcanoes that are no longer active. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted for thousands of years and show no sign of future eruption.