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8th Grade Science > Geology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Geology Deck (111):
0

What is the purpose of a model?

to have a visual aid that is a replica of the original object to better make observations, especially if the original object is too big or too small to observe properly

1

What is the difference between a scaled model & a model that is nt scaled?

a scaled model is proportional to the original object, but a non-scaled model isn't

2

What is the difference between a scaled down model & a scaled up model? (& example)

a scaled down {reduced} model is smaller than the original object (ex: globe vs earth) & a scaled up {enlarged} model is larger than the original object (ex: a cell vs a model of a cell)

3

What are Earth's layers determined by?

composition (what each layer is made of) & physical properties (i.e. temperature, density, ability to flow, state of matter, etc.)

4

Crust: % of Earth's mass, thickness, & composition

less than 1%; continental - Avg = 30 km, oceanic - 5-8km; continental - granite, oceanic - basalt

5

Mantle: % of Earth's mass, thickness, & composition

67%; 2,900 km; Iron (Fe) & Magnesium (Mg)

6

Core (inner/outer): % of Earth's mass, thickness, & composition

33%; 6,858 km (diameter); Iron (Fe) & Nickel (Ni)

7

What is the crust?

• the outermost layer
• the thinnest layer

8

What are the 2 types of crust?

oceanic & continental

9

What are the differences between oceanic crust & continental crust?

• continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust
• oceanic crust is more dense than continental crust

10

What is the MOHO?

the boundary between the mantle & the crust

11

What is the Lithosphere?

the topmost solid part of the Earth that is broken into plates that move; the crust & top part of mantle

12

What is the Mantle?

• it is extremely thick & contains most of the Earth's mass

13

Where can mantle rock be seen?

on the ocean floor at underwater volcanoes

14

What is the composition of the mantle?

mostly iron & magnesium

15

The rock in the mantle can ___ ___ like a thick liquid.

flow slowly

16

What is the property called in which a solid can flow slowly like a thick liquid?

plasticity

17

What is the Oute Core made of?

liquid iron & nickel

18

What is the Inner Core?

• innermost layer of the Earth

19

What is the inner core made of?

solid iron & nickel

20

What are some physical properties of the inner core?

very high temperature, pressure, & density

21

How would the plasticity of the mantle influence the movement of the crust?

it would cause the crust & tectonic plates to shift, which could create earthquakes

22

What is the Continental Drift Theory?

the theory that 200 million years ago, the Earth only had one giant continent, from which today's continents broke apart & drifted into their current locations

23

Who proposed the Continental Drift Theory?

Alfred Wegener

24

What was this "supercontinent" called? What does it mean?

Pangaea ~ "all earth"

25

What are 3 pieces of evidence to support the Continental Drift Theory?

1) Fossils of the same plant & animal species that couldn't have crossed an ocean have been found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
2) Similar types of rock & the same climate conditions can be found on several continents.
3) When all of the continental pieces are put in their original placement, the glacial grooves (grooves in the ground left by glaciers in the direction they traveled) match up.

26

What is the theory of Plate Tectonics?

Plate Tectonics is the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere.

27

What is Sea Floor Spreading?

at mid ocean ridges, molten rock is forced up from inside the earth at the ridge, forming into new crust. this new crust is gradually pushed away as new molten rock comes up.

28

Where would the oldest crust in the ocean be found?

closer to land, further away from the mid ocean ridge

29

How does a Divergent Boundary occur?

occur as 2 tectonic plates move away from each other, resulting in an upwelling of material from the mantle to create a new sea floor

30

Is oceanic crust created or destroyed at a divergent boundary?

created

31

How much oceanic crust is formed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

1 inch / year

32

What is a Convergent Boundary?

where plates are moved together

33

What is a Subduction Zone?

where one (more dense) plate is pushed down under another (less dense) plate at a convergent boundary

34

Is oceanic crust created or destroyed at a convergent boundary?

destroyed

35

What are the 3 types of convergent boundaries?

1. Continental-Oceanic
2. Oceanic-Oceanic
3. Continental-Continental

36

What is the tallest mountain range on earth? Due to what type of boundary? What 2 plates create this mountain range? How much does it increase by each year?

Himalayan Mountains (Mt. Everest); Continental-continental convergent boundary; Eurasian Plate & Indian-Australian Plate; increases about 2cm / year

37

What are some features & effects found along convergent boundaries?

Mountain ranges (c-c), volcanic arcs (o-c, o-o), trenches (o-c, o-o), & earthquakes

38

What is a Transform Fault Boundary?

where plates grind past each other without the production or destruction of the earth's crust

39

What is a strike-slip fault?

where 2 plates collide & try to slip past each other

40

Why are earthquakes found along transform fault boundaries?

b/c as the plates are trying to move past each other, friction is causing the plates to lock, & that strain increases until they fracture. the sudden release of energy is an earthquake

41

How do tectonic plates interact with each other to change continents?

at the boundaries (divergent, convergent, & transform), the plates interact w/ each other & create volcanoes, mountain ranges, & fractures in the earth's surface. the pulling or pushing of plates can change the location & shape of continents

42

What can hot spots make?

volcanoes

43

What is a Hot Spot?

a place on the Earth's surface that is directly above a column of rising magma called a mantle plume

44

What is the Ring of Fire?

the plate boundaries surrounding the Pacific Ocean have so many volcanoes that these boundaries together are called the Ring of Fire

45

What is Folding?

the bending of rock layers due to stress in the Earth's crust

46

What is an Anticline?

a bowl-shaped fold in sedimentary rock layers

(upside down "u")
(an upward fold)

47

What is a Syncline?

a trough-shaped fold in sedimentary rock layers

(a right-side-up "u")
(a downward fold)

48

What is a Monocline?

a fold in sedimentary rock layers in which the layers are horizontal on both sides of the fold

49

What is a Fault?

a break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another due to tectonic forces

50

What is a Normal Fault?

a fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall

51

When do Normal Faults usually occur?

when rocks are pulled apart due to tension

52

What is a Reverse Fault?

a fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall

53

When do Reverse Faults usually occur?

when rocks are pushed together by compression

54

What is a Strike-Slip Fault?

a fault in which the 2 fault blocks (whose fractures are vertical or nearly vertical) move past each other horizontally

55

What is Mountain Building?

the process in which the tectonic plates continuously move around & bump into each other, causing mountains to form

56

What are Folded Mountains?

mountains that form when rock layers are squeezed together & pushed upward

(when 2 tectonic plates collide)

57

What are Fault-Block Mountains?

mountains that form when faults or cracks in the Earth's crust force some blocks of rock up or down

58

What are Volcanic Mountains?

mountains that form when molten rock erupts onto the Earth's surface

59

When will the next supercontinent be formed?

in 50 to 200 million years

60

What will the next supercontinent be called?

Amasia

61

How and where will the continents come together to form Amasia?

North & South America will come together, and Asia will join with the Americas, at the North Pole

62

Are earthquakes & volcanoes scattered randomly over the surface of the earth or are they concentrated in definite zones?

They are more concentrated at plate boundaries, especially at the Ring of Fire. They are, for the most part, located near the edges of continents.

63

What relationship exists between the locations of earthquakes & of volcanoes?

They are usually found close by each other or in the same location, and they can mostly be found along plate boundaries.

64

What is an Ash Cloud?

the cloud of ash that forms in the air after some volcanic eruptions

66

What is a Conduit?

a passage through which magma (molten rock) flows in a volcano

67

What is Lava?

molten rock; it usually comes out of erupting volcanoes

68

What is a Magma Chamber?

the area that contains magma (molten rock) deep within the Earth's crust

69

What is a Vent?

an opening in the Earth's surface through which volcanic materials erupt

70

What is a Side Vent?

a vent in the side of a volcano

71

What is a Shield Volcano?

a broad, dome-shaped volcano with a wide base, gentle slopes, & a large bowl-shaped opening at the top. it covers a large area

72

Why do shield volcanoes have gentle slopes?

b/c they are made of many layers of a kind of volcanic rock (basalt) that flows easily when melted. when the basalt flows out of the vent, it forms thin layers sloping away from the crater

73

When a shield volcano erupts, what happens?

lava quietly flows from the vent

74

What is a Cinder Cone?

a steep conical hill that is formed above a vent, with steep sides & a steep cone, & is often smaller than a shield volcano, & wears away easily

75

What are cinders (in a cinder cone)?

bits of volcanic rock (andesite & sometimes basalt) that make up cinder cones

76

When a cinder cone erupts, what happens?

cinders & rock particles are blown out of the vent & harden in the air. when they land, they pile up around the crater to form a steep cone

77

What is a Composite Cone?

a large, cone-shaped volcano formed by alternating layers of cinders & lava, with steep sides

78

What keeps composite cones from wearing away fast?

the layers of hardened lava

79

When a composite cone erupts, what happens?

a violent eruption sends up volcanic bombs, cinders, & ash. a quiet volcanic flow follows the eruption. alternating layers continue forming the mountain

80

Why are composite cones often bigger than cinder cones?

b/c the hardened lava keeps them from wearing away fast

81

After a shield volcano erupts, it usually is...

a little higher b/c most of the lava runs down the sides of the volcano

82

Mt. Mcklinley in Alaska is 1 of the world's highest volcanoes. From its size, we can tell that it is not what type of volcano?

it isn't a cinder cone

83

What is an Earthquake?

a disturbance in the earth's crust wen one section moves past another

84

What is Amplitude?

The size of a wave generated by an earthquake

85

What is Magnitude?

a measure of the energy released by an earthquake

86

What is Seismology?

the science that studies earthquakes & their causes

87

What causes an earthquake?

volcanic or magmatic activity, other sudden stress changes in the earth; when tectonic plates move past each other causing stress

88

What is an earthquake?

the resulting ground-shaking & radiated seismic energy caused by a sudden slip on a fault

89

What is the Focus?

the point inside the earth where an eathquake begins

90

What is the Epicenter?

the point on the earth's surface above the focus; the point on the surface of the earth above which an actual earthquake has taken place

91

What is a Seismometer?

an instrument used to detect & record earthquakes

92

What is a Seismogram?

a recording produced by a seismograph, showing the time of arrival of different earthquake waves & their intensities

93

What does P Wave stand for?

Primary Wave

94

What is a P Wave?

a type of seismic wave that compresses & expands the ground; the first wave to arrive at an earthquake

95

What can P Waves travel through?

both solids & liquids

96

What does S Wave stand for?

Secondary Wave

97

What is a S Wave?

a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up & down or side to side

98

What can S Waves travel through?

only solids

99

What do Surface Waves do?

move along the earth's surface; produce motion in the upper crust

100

What are 2 types of Surface Waves, and how do they move?

L Waves - move up & down
Raleigh Waves - motion can be all around

101

What's a difference between Surface Waves & S & P Waves?

Surface Waves travel more slowly & are more destructive

102

What is Triangulation?

a technique that uses 3 data points - and thus, 3 seismographs - to plot a location

103

What do scientists use triangulation for?

to determine the epicenter of an earthquake

104

How are earthquakes measured?

the Richter Scale & the Mercalli Intensity Scale

105

What is the Richter Scale based on?

the amplitude (size) of the waves

106

How does the Mercalli Intensity Scale measure an earthquake's intensity?

by analyzing the effects of the earthquake / the damage it leaves behind

107

What is a Tsunami?

a series of large waves & rushing water

108

How & where is a Tsunami formed?

formed by a fault underwater; occurs in a large body of water

109

What is a warning sign that a Tsunami is coming?

the shoreline recedes (water is sucked back into the ocean)

110

What happens to S Waves as they hit the outer core of the earth? Why?

the S Waves stop/disappear. the outer core is made of liquid

111

Why might the P Waves bend as they enter & exit the outer core?

they are changing from traveling in a solid to traveling in a liquid & vice versa, and the speed also changes (P waves are faster in a solid)