Flashcards in Germany and Kanji Dam Deck (15):
Describe Germany's production of energy?
Fifth largest energy producer
Oil (36%), gas (23%) and coal (24%) but only has coal reserves.
Describe the growth of renewables in Germany.
● Electricity output from renewables has grown eightfold in Germany since 1990, and the latest data further highlights the dramatic shift towards clean energy taking place in Europe’s largest economy.
● Renewables 5% in 2006
● Renewable energy was the biggest contributor to Germany’s electricity supply in 2016, with nearly 33.9 percent of the country’s power generation coming from clean sources.
● Sees renewables as an important industrial sector for the future
What are Germany's renewable targets for the future?
● Germany aims to raise the share of renewables from 17% today to more than 80% in 2050, while completely phasing out electricity production from nuclear power plants by 2022
● Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions would be cut by 40% by 2020 and at least 80% by 2050. In the field of energy efficiency, Germany intends to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050 compared with 2008.
How is Germany producing its green energy?
● Hydro 5% - in pre-Alps area
● Renewable Energy sources Act set minimum price guarantee for 20 years and tax concessions
● Has 32% of the world’s solar panels – including one site of 62 acres
● In 2007, had over 18000 wind turbines – flat North German plain and now offshore
● Investing in bioenergy from crops in North Germany
What is Freiburg?
● Freiburg, a city of about 220,000 people and 155 km2 of land, is located in the southwest corner of Germany
Describe solar in Freiburg.
● The city is home to approximately 400 photovoltaic installations on both public and private buildings such as the 19-story façade of the main train station
● Currently Freiburg’s 150,000 m2 of photovoltaic cells produce over 10 million kWh/year. The 60 “plus-energy” homes of the Solar Settlement create more energy than they consume, and earn 6,000 euros per year for their residents.
● Solar thermal (mostly hot water) panels cover 16,000 m2
Describe biomass in Freiburg.
● With 16.6 million kWh/year, biomass has the largest share of Freiburg’s renewable electricity generation
Describe CHP in Freiburg.
● CHP produces both electricity and heat by capturing the waste heat from electricity production to generate more electricity and useful heat, e.g., for district heating systems.
● About 50% of Freiburg’s electricity is now produced with CHP (compared to just 3% in 1993). There are 14 large-scale CHP plants and about 90 small-scale CHP plants. The two large-scale plants located near landfills use landfill gas as fuel.
● CHP produces both electricity and heat by capturing the waste heat from electricity production to generate more electricity and useful heat, e.g., for district heating systems. About 50% of Freiburg’s electricity is now produced with CHP (compared to just 3% in 1993).
Where is Kanji Dam?
On the Niger in Nigeria.
What are the major dams on the Niger?
● There are three major dams in Niger State, Nigeria. The Kainji Dam built in 1968, Jebba Dam built in 1985 and Shiroro Dam built in 1990. A fourth dam is being built at Zungeru, also in Niger State. These are all hydroelectric dams and generate a potential combined power output of 1,900 megawatts.
When was the Kanji dam built?
● Built in 1964-68 – major symbol of interdependence
What was the cost of the Kanji dam?
● The dam is one of the longest dams (10kms) in the world – cost £209m
What is the energy production from the Kanji dam?
● Produces 800 mw from 10 turbines
What are the economic benefits of Kanji dam?
● Ship lock and lake has improved navigation on the seasonal river.
● Development of tourism at north-west end of the lake
● Supplies electricity for all the large Nigerian cities and some is exported
● Saves Using oil which can then be exported
● Created a 135km long, 30 km wide lake, which is used as a reservoir and by the fishing industry.
● Water can be used to irrigate crops creating cash/commercial farming
● New crossing point via dam of Niger