What is the energy consumption in the Uk?
In 2014, total UK overall primary energy consumption of fuels obtained directly from natural sources was 193.4 million tonnes, 6.6 per cent lower than in 2013, and 7.0 per cent lower than the 2012 level. This is the lowest since prior to 1970.
Describe oil extraction in the UK.
● Found in the North Sea (we have taken ½ - ¾ of remaining reserves in territorial waters) – remaining reserves in small and remote fields. ● Peaked at end of 1990s but was down 30% to 2 million barrels a day in 2006. 2010: 1.2 million barrels a day.1,508,000 barrels of oil per day in 2013
What is the government policy of oil extraction in the UK?
Government policy: if oil fields left fallow by owners they can be given to other companies who want to develop. As large fields decline and become less profitable to large oil companies, smaller companies are taking their place. New techniques developed to extract more reserves from North Sea (EG in Miller oil field 240km north east of Peterhead in Scotland CO2 from mainland power station injected for an additional 40 million barrels, increasing lifetime by 15-20 years).
Describe the supply of gas in the UK
Britain has three LNG import facilities (such as Isle of Grain, Kent), together they are capable of meeting nearly 50% of annual demand, however the facilities tend to operate flexibly as LNG is traded on global markets. Gas from fields in the North and Irish Sea typically provide around 40% of gas supplies. However production from these fields is now in decline and we are importing more and more of our gas from abroad. One way of importing gas from abroad is through pipelines that run under the sea. There are currently four of these pipelines, which run from the European continent to the British mainland: The UK-Belgium interconnector (IUK): This pipeline runs between Bacton in Norfolk and Zeebrugge in Belgium, and connects Britain to the mainland Europe gas network. This pipeline has an import capacity of 25.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) a year. Britain has over 4bcm of storage capacity that can be called upon to deliver over one quarter of national gas demand on a cold winter’s day. (such as depleted gas fields and salt caverns)
Describe Nuclear power in the UK.
The UK has 15 reactors generating about 21% of its electricity but almost half of this capacity is to be retired by 2025.
The country has full fuel cycle facilities including major reprocessing plants.
The UK has implemented a very thorough assessment process for new reactor designs and their siting.
The UK has privatized power generation and liberalized its electricity market, which together make major capital investments problematic.
The first of some 19 GWe of new-generation plants is expected to be on line by 2025. The government aims to have 16 GWe of new nuclear capacity operating by 2030, with no restriction on foreign equity.
Describe the use of coal in the UK.
Beginning of 20th century -> coalmining= biggest employer (at peak it had 1 million workers) ●
March 05- 42 open cast sites and 8 major deep mines (9300 employees). Virtually all of the easily accessible coal has been mined ●
2004 – consumption was 60.6 million tonnes (33% of energy generated by coal).
Clean coal technology – coal burns with greater efficiency with less emissions (efficiency 20% above coal-fired p stations built in the 1960s)
Describe the use of hydro-electric power in the UK.
Hydroelectric power ● 0.8% ● Large scale plants (>20 MW) located in the Scottish Highlands. 2005- Scottish ministers approved plans to build a new HEP station at Glendoe (Inverness-shire) built underground at Loch Ness (up to 100 MW of electricity which can support 37,000 homes) ● If all countries rivers and streams were tapped it would equate to 3% of the country’s electricity needs Restoration of generation follows the completion of the work undertaken at Glendoe following its interruption in August 2009 as a result of a rock fall in the tunnel carrying water from the scheme reservoir to the power station. Glendoe's main operational feature is that it is able to start generating electricity at full capacity in just 90 seconds and can therefore help to meet changes in demand and provide flexible balancing power supporting variable wind generation. Located near Fort Augustus, Highlands 100MW capacity
What are the UK's renewable targets?
The findings of the influential energy and climate change committee (ECC) show that ministers have little clear plan for meeting the 2020 target to meet 15% of energy needs from renewable sources.
This includes a target to generate 30% of electricity from wind, solar and other low-carbon sources by the end of the decade, and to generate 12% of heating energy and 10% of transport fuels from clean sources by the same date. The UK is not legally bound to meet the heat target, which is advisory.
Describe solar power in the UK
● Photovoltaic tiles and small wind turbines of roofs (Energy Saving Trust est home-powered generators can provide 30/40% of UK’s electricity needs by 2050 ● Solar photovoltaics = 6MW
Describe wind power in the UK
● Wind farm Scroby Sands (2005- Great Yarmouth) has 30 turbines providing energy for 41,000 homes
Describe geothermal in the UK
● Southampton geothermal p plant [hot water from deep below the city] (heating and cooling systems for domestic and commercial consumers)
t provides heating and cooling to over a thousand residential properties, several large office buildings, a hospital, a health clinic, a university, a large shopping centre, a supermarket, several hotels, BBC television studios, one of Europe's largest shopping complexes, and a swimming and diving complex, among others.
Descrieb biomass in the UK
● The report states that bioenergy accounted for 5.6TWh (7%) of electricity generation in 2014 Q2, an increase of 8.8% compared with the previous year. This is mainly as a result of conversions at both Drax and Ironbridge power stations, which have begun the shift from coal to sustainable biofuel. - according to The Department of Energy and Climate Change (Decc)
Is there wave power in the UK?
● Two wave power devices in Scotland (1.25MW)
How is the UK's renewable sector growing?
● The National Audit Office found that government-funded direct support for renewable energy technology had totalled £265 million between 2000 and 2009. ● In 2015, on the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive basis, normalised renewable generation was 22.3 per cent of gross electricity consumption, an increase of 4.4 percentage points on2014’s share
Describe fracking in the UK
Fracking (a process where water and chemicals are injected underground in order to draw out gas or oil resources from rock formations) ● MPs have voted to allow fracking under Britain’s national parks, drawing accusations that the government has sneaked the measure through parliament without a proper debate. The new rules allow fracking 1,200 metres below national parks and sites of special scientific interest, as long as drilling takes place from outside protected areas.
What is microgeneration in the UK?
● Developing small-scale energy generators with outputs of
What is the provision of energy in Mali?
25% of the population has access to formal electricity [according to the energypedia : Mali Energy Situation] (most people that have electric live in the capital Bamako – less than 1% in rural areas)
Describe the use of biofuels in Mali.
● In rural areas 80% biomass (firewood and charcoal) ● In 1994, there were 600,000 tonnes of wood cut for use in the capital Bamako, and increased to 900,000 tonnes by 2010 ● MFC (Mali Folke Centre) has helped develop plantations of Jatropha (plant). This plant not only helps to stabilise areas close to desertification, but it also produces seeds which are made into a biofuel substitute for diesel oil. ● Whilst presently most biomass use is non-sustainable, Mali's large agricultural base offers various possibilities for renewable energy production, in the form of biomass, biogas and biofuels (alcohol, plant oil). ● Wood cutting is a rural areas is a rural industry and provides employment for many people
Describe the use of oil in Mali
● Imported petroleum accounts for 8% of the country’s trade balance ● Importation (cost of supply) correspond to 16% of the country’s budget ● Kerosene lamps used (light) ● Mali has no oil
How have organisations increased the use availability of power in mali?
● The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has instigated the multi-functional platform project which provides decentralized energy to rural villages in response to requests from local women’s associations in Mali. A multifunctional platform consists of a 10-hp diesel engine that, as desired, can power a mill, a generator, a pump or other devices mounted on the same rail. The engine was purposefully designed to take for the multiple end uses. ● Since 2005 AMADER with WB-funding ran the PCASER programme, subsidising the initial; investment for rural, local electrification initiatives. This resulted in some 200 rural minigrids, nearly all diesel driven and operated by in total some 60 different operators. Many of these in practice are little used, mainly because of high fuel costs.
Describe the use of natural gas in Mali.
● Mali has no natural gas reserves
Descrieb the use of hydroelectric in Mali.
Hydroelectric ● The Manantali Dam is a multi-purpose dam on the Bafing River in the Senegal River basin. The dam began to produce electricity for Senegal, Mali and Mauritania in 2001 ● In 2006 in Mali more than 90% of all green electricity generated came from Manantali. ● The dam reduces the annual flood of the Senegal River to an artificial two–week flood. ● The potential for large hydroelectric sites (> 10 MW) is estimated at 1,150 MW, all of which along the rivers Niger and Senegal, of which about 250 MW is presently developed
Describe the use of chemical energy in Mali
● Torches and rechargeable car batteries are used for light ● Battery charging stations (BCSs) in un-electrified areas
Describe the use of solar power in Mali
● The Mali Folke Centre (MFC), a Christian Aid partner has installed solar panels on roofs of 30 schools to provide lighting – local people trained to maintain them ● Solar energy accounts for 4,312,187,335 MWh/year ● 216Kw solar plant (2011) 70km north of Bamako in the Koulikoro region ● Small minority have generators or solar panels to provide energy to households ● Solar energy is effective due to an average 5-6 hours of sunshine every day
Describe wind energy in Mali
● Significant wind energy potential is available, though hardly used, particularly in the Sahelian and Saharan zones, where annual average wind speed is estimated at 3 to 7m/s
Describe the growth of the energy sector in Mali
● 4% renewable electricity generation (2003) ● Recently AMADER received an additional 50 M$ funding by the World Bank under the Scaling up Renewable Energy Programme (SREP). A large share of this funding will serve to convert diesel-powered mini-grids to solar-diesel hybrid operation.
Describe the differences in the use of oil in Mali and the UK, and state why they occur.
UK - 1,508,000 barrels of oil per day in 2013 Mali - No oil (no fossil fuel deposits) Reserves in the UK found in the North Sea whereas Mali is landlocked (petroleum important for 8% of total imports). Government initiatives encourage small & large companies to keep producing oil
Describe the differences in the use of biomass in Mali and the UK, and state why they occur.
UK - 1.55% biomass for electricity Mali - 80% biomass for ENERGY consumption 2010 – 900,000 tonnes of wood in Bamako (firewood) Mali = LIC with few other opportunities for energy production (rural poverty areas)
Describe the differences in the use of gas in Mali and the UK, and state why they occur.
UK - 44% from European pipelines, 43% from UK production 13% from liquefied natural gas tankers (overseas). Fracking Mali - No gas imports ($11 billion GDP), lack of infrastructure, high rural and urban poor. No fracking Lack of infrastructure (no pipelines to import gas from neighbouring countries) whereas UK pipes gas from Europe (UK GDP: $2.678 trillion
Describe the differences in the use in solar generation in Mali and the UK, and state why they occur.
UK - 3,931 gwh solar generation (2014) Mali - 216Kw solar plant (2011) 70km north of Bamako in the Koulikoro region Mali has no national grid (5-6 hours of constant sunlight)
Describe the differences in the use of nuclear in Mali and the UK, and state why they occur.
UK - 23% nuclear in 2005. Until 2005 nuclear energy was not widely considered. Falling North Sea energy production = either building new plants or allowing the industry to run down as old plants are closed. Mali - No nuclear High cost of Nuclear energy, large amounts of energy produced requiring a grid.
Describe the differences in the use of hydroelectricity in Mali and the UK, and state why they occur.
UK - Large scale plants (>20 MW) located in the Scottish Highlands. 2005- Scottish ministers approved plans to build a new HEP station at Glendoe (Inverness-shire) built underground at Loch Ness (up to 100 MW of electricity which can support 37,000 homes) Mali - The Manantali Dam is a multi-purpose dam on the Bafing River in the Senegal River basin Better economy in UK, Mali have little options in terms of energy production, UK becoming more renewable