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Flashcards in Nigeria, Three Gorges Dam Deck (15):
1

How is Nigeria being exploited?

Nigeria: 130 million people, sixth largest oil exporter (159 small oil fields, reserves being exhausted)

2

Social and economic opportunities created by the exploitation of energy resources
Describe the social benefits of oil abstraction in Nigeria.

● Improved standard of living from the increase in GDP
● Increased import in luxury goods

3

Social and economic opportunities created by the exploitation of energy resources
Describe the economic benefits of oil abstraction in Nigeria.

● The oil and gas sector accounts for about 35 per cent of gross domestic product, and petroleum exports revenue represents over 90 per cent of total exports revenue
Value of exports (million $) 45,365
Value of petroleum exports (million $) 41,818
● 2000, oil and gas exports accounted for 98% of earnings in Nigeria.
● Proved crude oil reserves = 37,070,000,000 barrels
● Nigeria is the third biggest economy in Africa, largely due to the share of crude oil in its exports.
● In 2000, oil and gas exports accounted for 98% of earnings in Nigeria

4

Problems created by the exploitation of energy resources for people and the environment
What are the the social problems created by Oil abstraction in Nigeria?

● Reduced fish stocks
● Increased crime
● Their GDP per capita is £193 (Wealth generated by oil revenues has not passed down to the citizens of Nigeria, as 45% of the population still live below the poverty line)
● The World Bank has estimated that as a result of corruption, 80% of energy revenues in the country only benefit 1% of the population.
● Over 20 ethnic groups in the area fight over the lack of oil wealth

5

Describe reduced fish stocks in Nigeria

(migration to deeper water from construction & increased traffic, acid rain, oil spills and mangrove removal) causing local people to give up fishing. This has caused ethnic rivalry between over 20 different ethnic groups.

6

Describe increased crime in Nigeria

(a militant group called the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) has emerged. This group have launched many attacks on oil workers and pipelines, attempting to shut down production in the region, as well as kidnap workers.

7

Problems created by the exploitation of energy resources for people and the environment
What are the the economic problems created by Oil abstraction in Nigeria

● Imports more food than produces (reliant on exports) due to the government and companies neglecting agriculture for oil wealth [no longer self-sufficient in food as focused on oil]
● Imports the bulk of fuel as refineries which are old and inefficient
● Old and poorly run refineries = frequent breakdown

8

Problems created by the exploitation of energy resources for people and the environment
What are the the environmental problems created by Oil abstraction in Nigeria?

● 1986-2003 more than 50,000 acres of mangroves was cleared (land clearing, pollution and canal dredging) for oil and gas exploration
● Oil spills, acid rain from gas flares and the stripping away of mangroves = killing fish
● Natural gas in oil fields is burned off rather than utilised or re-injected back in the ground causing acid rain and releasing greenhouse gases
● Construction and increasing ship traffic has altered local wave patterns = shore erosion and migration of fish into deeper water. They have had no Environmental Impact Assessments
● Tanker movement has increased shore/reef erosion

9

Describe oil spills in Nigeria.

According to Nigerian federal government figures, there were more than 7,000 oil spills between 1970 and 2000 in the Nigeria Delta

10

Where is the Three Gorges dam?

Sandouping in the Hubei Province of China

The dam has so far blocked an estimated ten million tons of plastic bags, bottles, animal corpses, trees, and other detritus that otherwise would have flowed out to sea.

11

Social and economic opportunities created by the exploitation of energy resources
What social opportunities are created by the three Gorges Dam?

● Lives will be saved (in 1998, 2000 people died due to flooding). Flood frequency has increased to 100 years, lessening the impacts of floods; regulation of water west of the Dam
● Hydroelectric power is clean, renewable and a self-sustaining resource
● Prior to the dam, flooding would result in the deposition of clay sediments making farming impossible, people died of starvation
● It will reduce and end the frequent generator "burn outs" and "black-outs”
● Benefits 15 million living in high flood risk areas
● Reduced flooding from 1 in 10 years to 1 in 100 years

12

Social and economic opportunities created by the exploitation of energy resources
What economic opportunities are created by the three Gorges Dam?

● The dam will generate 20,000 jobs
● 84 billion kwh of power per year (10% of China’s electricity)
● Industries will improve as there have been river transport developments
● Large ships can navigate the river and reach Chungong, creating thousands of jobs and developing new towns and farms (70% of inland water transportation)
● Tourism ($15.6 million was generated in 2007 with 800,000 visitors)
● The 1998 floods caused 68 factories in Gongan to be affected. 9/10 jobs were lost
● It runs through more than 25% of the agricultural farmlands and supports about a third of the population in the country
● CO2 emissions will be cut and China will no longer have to rely as much on foreign imports of coal, having future benefits despite the high cost of the dam ($22.5 billion).
2005 some 40 million metric tons) of cargo were transported via the Three Gorges Dam.

13

Problems created by the exploitation of energy resources for people and the environment
Describe the social problems created by the Three Gorges Dam

The dam has also had negative social impacts, especially on farmers and people living in the area surrounding the dam; 100,000 acres of farm land, 1,600 factories and mines, 13 cities, 140 towns, 1,352 villages were flooded by the dam, and nearly 2 million people were displaced. [3] Farmers were also left with no land to farm, and had to find new jobs.
● 1300 archaeological sites lost
● Governments forced people out of homes for “incentives” and refusal results in arrest and destruction

14

Problems created by the exploitation of energy resources for people and the environment
Describe the economic problems created by the Three Gorges Dam

● 13 major cities will be flooded, 62,000 acres of farmland and 140 large, and hundreds of small villages along the river's banks
● High building costs ($29 billion)
● Tourist numbers may reduce due to flooding, loss of archaeological sites, loss of cities etc
● 100,000 acres of farmland has been lost accounting for 10% of grain production
● The river basin contains 300 species of fish. The dam could disrupt fish migration and prevent spawning upstream having a negative effect on the fishing industry & the livelihoods of the fishermen
● Decreases in freshwater flow has meant that more saltwater is flowing up the Yangtze, endangering fish populations

15

Problems created by the exploitation of energy resources for people and the environment
Describe the environmental problems created by the Three Gorges Dam

● A thick layer of clay sediment was deposited over farmland creating infertile soil and reducing crop yields
● Loss of habitat
● Threatens habitats (Baiji river dolphin)
● The dam is at risk of collapse as the area is seismic
● Siltation is reducing capacity meaning there will be less water and therefore a lower energy output
● The river basin contains 300 species of fish. The dam could disrupt fish migration and prevent spawning upstream
● 50% loss in sediment and nutrients downstream
● Increase in erosion resulting in landslides in surround areas