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A Level Edexcel History Germany 1918-1989 > Germany Background 1918 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Germany Background 1918 Deck (20)
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1

What was the triple alliance and who was in it?

It was an alliance formed in 1882 between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. They were to support each other if attacked either by France or Russia.

2

What was the triple entente and who was in it?

The loose alignment of Britain, France and Russia formed in 1907 in response to German expansion.

3

What was the armistice and when was it signed?

It signified the end of World War One and was signed November 11th 1918

4

Who were the November Criminals?

Name given to the socialist politicians who signed the armistice.

5

What is the meaning of Dolchstoss?

The stab in the back theory

6

Who were the Weimar Government?

The republic formed following the abdication of the Kaiser

7

What was the treaty of Versailles?

The Paris Peace conference of 1919 set up to deal with the defeated powers.

8

What was article 231?

The war-guilt clause- Germany accepted that they were responsible for WW1

9

Why did the occupation of the Ruhr occur?

Germany failed to pay reparations in 1923. This led to the occupation of Germany’s main coal, iron and steel production area

10

What caused the collapse of the German economy?

Passive resistance in the Ruhr which lead to hyperinflation

11

What was the Munich Putsch?

Hitler, Eric Ludendorff and Herman goering attempted to start a national revolution in 1923

12

Who was the leader of Germany in 1914?

Kaiser Wilhelm II

13

What did Kaiser Wilhelm II admire about Britain?

It’s navy and empire

14

What was the Schlieffen Plan?

The plan to attack through Belgium to then invade France quickly then invade Russia. This was so to avoid fighting on 2 fronts simultaneously

15

Who was Archduke Franz Ferdinand?

Heir to the Austrian Hungarian throne

16

How did WW1 start?

Archduke Franz Ferdinand died on 28th June 1914. Austria Hungary then declared war on Serbia as they thought they took part in the assassination. Russia declared war on Austria Hungary as Serbia is it’s ally. Germany then declare war on France and Russia. Germany enters Belgium, prompting Britain to declare war on Germany

17

When did America join the war?

1918

18

What was happening to Germany in the war (1918)

German spring offensive of 1918 was initially successful, 50 miles from Paris. US, French, British forces counter attack and pushed the Germans back.

19

What was happening in Germany during the war? (1918)

Revolutionary atmosphere in Germany due to collapsing economy and failed offensive.
British blockade resulted in food shortages.
Socialism became more appealing.

20

Timeline of Germany at the end of the war

September-Ludendorff advised the government to seek peace terms
New government led by Prince Max of Baden opened negotiations.
29th October-German sailors at the ports of Wilhelmshaven and Kiel organised a mutiny.
4th and 5h November- mutiny spread to other ports
8th November-Bavaria declared a socialist republic, major riots in Berlin, Essen, Dortmund
9th November-Kaiser abdicated and fled to Holland
11th November-German delegates met with representatives of the allies and signed the agreement that ended the war