Flashcards in GI Deck (36):
what is achlasia
when lower oesophageal sphincter can't relax
benign esophageal stricture
narrowing or tightening of the esophagus that causes swallowing difficulties
Bulbar palsy is what kind of lesions
lower motor lesions
bulbar palsy symptoms
dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)
difficulty in chewing
slurring of speech
difficulty in handling secretions
choking on liquids
dysphonia (defective use of the voice, inability to produce sound due to laryngeal weakness)
dysarthria (difficulty in articulating words due to a CNS problem)
pharyngeal pouch symptoms
Age (over 70 years).
Backflow (regurgitation) of food.
Chest pain, which may increase after eating, or may be felt as pain in the back, neck, and arms.
Difficulty swallowing liquids and solids.
Unintentional weight loss.
what is gilberts syndrome
when liver does not process bilirubin
what is raised in hepatitis
alt and ast
what is raised in alcoholic liver
what to do if over 55 and recent reflux?
urgent referral to endoscopy
acronym ALARM for reasons for referral to endscopy
Loss of weight
Recent progressive symptoms
Malena or haematemesis
symptoms of dyspepsia
upper abdo pain
what is odynophagia
what can odynophagia be associate with?
coughing mid swallow could indicate what?
what could neck bulging when drinking signify?
what could intermittent pain signify?
two causes of reguritation
- motility disorder
hepatic encephalopathy --> from toxic build up from the liver
what can cause ascites?
1. liver chirrhosis
2. portal hypertension
can liver failure cause odema?
2 cause of hypothyroidism
low iodine in diet
how to treat hypothyroidism?
anti body for primary billary cirrhosis
what enzyme is raised in primary billary cirhosis?
what antibody is associated with auto-immune hepatitis?
what is angiodysplasia
small vascular malformation of the gut
what is a symptoms of angiodysplasia?
what is diverticulitis
where pockets become inflamed and infected
symptoms of diverticulitis
*sudden, painless bleeding
Tenderness, cramps, or pain in the abdomen (usually in the lower left side but may occur on the right) that is sometimes worse when you move.
Fever and chills.
A bloated feeling, abdominal swelling, or gas.
Diarrhea or constipation.
Nausea and sometimes vomiting.
Loss of appetite.
what is a mallory weiss tear?
tear where oesophagus meets stomach
symptoms of perforated gastric ulcer
Develop sudden, sharp abdominal pain.
Have a rigid, hard abdomen that is tender to touch.
Have symptoms of shock, such as fainting, excessive sweating, or confusion.
Vomit blood or have blood in your stool (especially if it is maroon or dark, tarry black)
symptoms of mallory weiss tear
vomiting up blood, which is called hematemesis
bloody or black stools
primary biliary cirrhosis symptoms
bone or joint aches
dry eyes and mouth
pain or discomfort in the upper right side of the tummy
dizziness when standing up
Upper abdominal pain.
Abdominal pain that radiates to your back.
Abdominal pain that feels worse after eating.
Tenderness when touching the abdomen.