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Flashcards in GI Deck (36):
1

what is achlasia

when lower oesophageal sphincter can't relax

2

benign esophageal stricture

narrowing or tightening of the esophagus that causes swallowing difficulties

3

Bulbar palsy is what kind of lesions

lower motor lesions

4

bulbar palsy symptoms

dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)
difficulty in chewing
nasal regurgitation
slurring of speech
difficulty in handling secretions
choking on liquids
dysphonia (defective use of the voice, inability to produce sound due to laryngeal weakness)
dysarthria (difficulty in articulating words due to a CNS problem)

5

pharyngeal pouch symptoms

Age (over 70 years).
Dysphagia.
Regurgitation.
Aspiration.
Cough.

6

achlasia symptoms

Backflow (regurgitation) of food.
Chest pain, which may increase after eating, or may be felt as pain in the back, neck, and arms.
Cough.
Difficulty swallowing liquids and solids.
Heartburn.
Unintentional weight loss.

7

what is gilberts syndrome

when liver does not process bilirubin

8

what is raised in hepatitis

alt and ast

9

what is raised in alcoholic liver

ast

10

what to do if over 55 and recent reflux?

urgent referral to endoscopy

11

acronym ALARM for reasons for referral to endscopy

Anemia
Loss of weight
Anorexia
Recent progressive symptoms
Malena or haematemesis

12

symptoms of dyspepsia

upper abdo pain
belching
bloating
N/V

13

what is odynophagia

painful swallowing

14

what can odynophagia be associate with?

horse voice

15

coughing mid swallow could indicate what?

bulbar palsy

16

what could neck bulging when drinking signify?

pharyngeal pouch

17

what could intermittent pain signify?

-abnormal contractions
-esophageal spasm

18

two causes of reguritation

- motility disorder
-malignancy /blockage

19

repeated falls...think

hepatic encephalopathy --> from toxic build up from the liver

20

what can cause ascites?

1. liver chirrhosis
2. portal hypertension

21

can liver failure cause odema?

yes

22

2 cause of hypothyroidism

low iodine in diet
hashimotos

23

how to treat hypothyroidism?

levothyroxine (t4)

24

anti body for primary billary cirrhosis

anti-mitochondrial antibodies

25

what enzyme is raised in primary billary cirhosis?

ALP

26

what antibody is associated with auto-immune hepatitis?

anti-smooth muscle

27

what is angiodysplasia

small vascular malformation of the gut

28

what is a symptoms of angiodysplasia?

bleeding
anemia

29

what is diverticulitis

where pockets become inflamed and infected

30

symptoms of diverticulitis

*sudden, painless bleeding

Tenderness, cramps, or pain in the abdomen (usually in the lower left side but may occur on the right) that is sometimes worse when you move.
Fever and chills.
A bloated feeling, abdominal swelling, or gas.
Diarrhea or constipation.
Nausea and sometimes vomiting.
Loss of appetite.

31

what is a mallory weiss tear?

tear where oesophagus meets stomach

32

symptoms of perforated gastric ulcer

Develop sudden, sharp abdominal pain.
Have a rigid, hard abdomen that is tender to touch.
Have symptoms of shock, such as fainting, excessive sweating, or confusion.
Hypotension
Vomit blood or have blood in your stool (especially if it is maroon or dark, tarry black)

33

symptoms of mallory weiss tear

abdominal pain
vomiting up blood, which is called hematemesis
involuntary retching
bloody or black stools

34

primary biliary cirrhosis symptoms

bone or joint aches
fatigue
itchy skin
dry eyes and mouth
problems sleeping
pain or discomfort in the upper right side of the tummy
dizziness when standing up

35

pancreatitis symptoms

Upper abdominal pain.
Abdominal pain that radiates to your back.
Abdominal pain that feels worse after eating.
Fever.
Rapid pulse.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Tenderness when touching the abdomen.

36

symptoms of variceal bleed

Vomiting and seeing significant amounts of blood in your vomit.
Black, tarry or bloody stools.
Lightheadedness.
Loss of consciousness (in severe case)