GI anatomy and physiology Flashcards Preview

PM2B: Journey Through the GI tract > GI anatomy and physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI anatomy and physiology Deck (32):
1

Describe how the movement is done throughout the GI tract?

1. Peristalsis which occurs through smooth muscle that's electrically coupled to other cells

2

Describe the intrinsic innervation enteric nervous system?

1. Controls the motility of gastric relaxation and contraction

2. Integrates autonomic nervous system and local systems: 5-HT

3. Functions independently of any other signals (some may say part of autonomic nervous system)

3

What does the myenteric plexus mainly control?

Motility in GI tract

4

What does the submucosal plexus mainly control?

Formation of secretions and blood flow in GI tract

5

Describe how the intrinsic innervation autonomic innervation works in the parasympathetic and sympathetic?

1. Parasympathetic: Increases motility and secretion
- ACh acting on muscarinic to increase salivation, mucosa (lining of stomach of mucus) and constriction

2. Sympathetic reduces GI function
Noradrenaline relaxes the smooth muscle in GI

6

Give examples of endocrine hormones in the blood stream and what they work on?

1. Gastrin and Cholesystokinin (CCK)

2. Both work on motility and secretion

7

Give examples of paracrine hormones in the cell wall and what they work on?

1. Histamine and somatostatin

2. Modulate nerve action, affect secretion and motility

8

What is the purpose behind salvia?

1. Aids swallowing

2. Begins digestion

3. Kills bacteria

9

Describe how the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system work?

1. Parasympathetic produces watery salvia which increases secretion and blood flow

2. Sympathetic produces mixed salvia which increases secretion and decreases blood flow

10

Describe the process of swallowing with the last step being the stomach?

1. Voluntary

2. Peristalsis occurs through the autonomic nervous system which is aided by mucous

3. Enters stomach via oesophageal sphincter

11

What is the stomach lined with?

1. Rugae (epithelial cells) that contain deep gastric pits for producing acid to grind food in the stomach

2. Located in the mucosa layer

12

What do the parietal cells do in the stomach?

Produce gastric acid

13

What do the chief cells do in the stomach?

Produce pepsinogen and other digestive enzymes which break up the food in the stomach

14

What does the gastric fluid consist of?

1. Pepsinogen

2. Salts

3. Hydrochloric acid

4. Water and intrinsic factors

15

What is the importance of HCl?

1. Aids absorption of calcium and iron

2. Actives pepsinogen and optimises pepsin function

3. Aids breakdown of tissue

4. Eliminates pathogens, bacteria and viruses

16

Describe how stomach acid is formed in the stomach?

1. Pariental cell forms carbonic anhydrase which forms the H+ and HCO3-

2. Cl- enters which replaces the HCO3- so that it can be transported via the K+/Cl- symporter

3. Proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase) transports H+ into the stomach lumen

17

How is gastrin released and what is the role of it in acid secretion?

1. Released from cell from nerve, hormonal and food stimuli

2. Activates CCK2 receptors on ECL cells stimulating histamine release

18

What is the role of histamine in acid secretion?

Agonist on H2 receptor on pariental cells that stimulate acid secretion

19

What is the purpose of the gastric mucosa?

Protects stomach from acid and gastric enzyme by acting as a gel like alkaline bicarbonate

20

What promotes mucosal secretion?

Prostaglandins

21

Describe the three main gastric diseases (causes and symptoms)

1. GORD (Gastro oesophageal reflux disease)
- Symptoms: heartburn, acid reflux, indigestion or irritation to gastric mucosa

2. Gastric bleeding
- due to NSAID treatment
- caused by irritants and cancer

3. Ulceration
- Causes may be stress or certain foods
- Caused by H. pylori infection

22

What is the role of the stomach in gastric propulsion?

1. Stomach mixes and stores food for digestion in the intestine

2. Peristaltic waves propel food from the pyloric sphincter to the duodenum

3. Controls emptying of food depending on pH and content of food

23

How is drug action affected by the stomach?

Depends on the rate of emptying and the pH of the stomach

24

Describe how vomiting is, the symptoms and what occurs during it?

1. The sudden forceful evacuation of the contents in the stomach (and duodenum)

2. Symptoms: loss of appetite, nausea, vasoconstriction, sweating and dizziness

3. During vomiting:
- Respiratory is relaxed
- Stomach relaxes, duodenum contracts
- Diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract powerfully

25

What area of the brain controls the vomiting centre and what are the two main components?

1. Medulla of the brain stem

2. Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ): senses enteric stimuli

3. Vomiting centre

26

What are the two roles played by the pancreas?

1. Endocrine:
- insulin and glucagon into the blood stream

2. Exocrine:
- Alkaline fluid reduces pH in the duodenum
- Digestive enzymes:
Proteolytic and Lipolytic: digestion protein and fats

3. ACh, CCK, Gastrin increases secretion and somatostatin decreases

27

What is the major role played by the small intestines?

The adsorption of nutrients and minerals as well as drug absorption

28

How are monosaccharide and amino acids absorbed?

Absorbed by the small intestine regulated by Na dependent transporters

29

How are fats and fat soluble vitamins absorbed ?

Micelles and bile salts

30

What is the role of the large intestine?

1. The storage of waste disposable/indigestible food residues before elimination by defection

2. Absorbs water and electrolytes

3. Resident bacteria form vitamins such as vitamin B12, vitamin K, Riboflavin

31

What is the role of mucous secretions in the large intestine?

Helps the movement of faeces easier throughout the defection period when the waste needs to be removed

32

What role does dietary fibre play in motility and defecation?

1. Bulk stimulates movement in the GIT

2. Dietary fibre hydrates the bulk allowing softer faeces (basis of laxatives)

3. High fibre can protect against some GI issues