Flashcards in Obesity Eating Disorders Deck (29):
What is perceptual image?
How you SEE your body
What is affective body image?
The way you FEEL about your bodily image
What is cognitive body image?
The way you THINK about your bodily image
What is behavioural body image?
Behaviours you engage in as a result of your body image encompasses your behavioural body image
What are the four eating disorders?
1. Anorexia nervosa
2. Bulmia nervosa (binge eating)
3. Binge Eating Disorder
4. Disordered Eating and dieting
What are the problems that come alongside Anorexia nervosa?
1. Anaemia (iron deficiency)
2. Immuno-comprised system (ill often)
3. Intestinal problems (abdominal pain, constipation)
4. Loss or disturbance in menstrual cycle for women
5. Increased risk of infertility in men or women
6. Kidney failure
8. Heart Problems (cardiac abnormalities, sudden cardiac arrest)
What are the problems that come alongside Bulimia Nervosa?
1. Binge Eating
3. Misusing laxatives or diuretics
4. Fasting then binging
5. Excessive dieting
6. Use of any drugs, illicit, prescription and OTC (inappropriately for weight control)
What are the problems that come alongside disordered eating?
1. Fasting or chronic
2. Skipping meals
3. Restrictive dieting
4. Unbalanced Dieting (restricting a major food group)
5. Laxative, diuretic or enaema
6. Use of supplements like creatine or steroids for performance enhancement and alter physical appearance
7. Using diet pills
What are the causes of obesity?
1. Long term disease that's due to genetic factors and environmental factors
2. Overweight children exhibit more illnesses than normal kids
What are some characteristics of bulbs that are linked to increased adipose tissue?
1. Higher energy index
2. Greater saturated fats
3. Reduced complex carbohydrates and fibres
4. Reduced fruit and vegetables
5. Additional snack food
What is the role of leptin in the body?
1. A mediator of long term food regulation
2. Acts as a energy balancer ensuring suppression of appetite (food intake) leading to weight loss
3. Produced in the white adipose tissue
4. Influences appetite control in the hypothalamus where it inhibits appetite
How is it thought that leptin influences obesity?
Lack of production of leptin leads to increased feeling of hunger which leads to food intake
What role does leptin play in starvation?
1. Leptin levels decrease out of proportion compared to the level of muscle mass
2. Leptin affects the neuroendocrine adaptation to starvation
3. Leads to infertility- lack of menstruation which occurs in women due to anorexia
What is the role of ghrelin?
1. A fast acting hormone that plays a role in meal initiation
2. Produced in the stomach and pancreas
3. Levels increase before meal and decrease after a meal
4. Stimulates HUNGER
What can glucose intolerance and insulin resistance lead to?
Type 2 Diabetes
What can inflammation and an increase in angiotensinogen lead to?
Hypertension and Coronary heart disease
What is visceral fat?
An endocrine organ
What diseases can visceral fat lead to?
3. Type 2 Diabetes
What does the BMI usually work out?
1. A standard test for obesity
How can you normally diagnose excess visceral fat?
1. Measure above the waist
2. Measure below the waist
What are the differences in waist variation between european and south asian/chinese men?
1. European waists are normally a lot larger
2. South asian and chinese are smaller
How does a healthcare professional manage weight loss and obesity in a patient?
1. Physical activity
2. Dietary advice
3. Behavioural and life style changes
What sort of weight loss should a healthcare professional strive for in a patient?
1. 5 to 10% weight loss
2. Rest of life
3. Decreased co-morbilities
4. Metabolic health
What is the role pharmacists can play in reducing the associated risks involved with obesity?
1. Help people understand the risks and dangers behind obesity
2. Provide OTC treatment for joint pain
3. Provide advice on POM such as statins, hypertension treatment and type 2 diabetes
4. Provide leaflets on lifestyle changes and advice, as well as diet
5. More depth motivational interviewing to make changes to the life style
How can you ensure that patients lose weight through dieting?
1. All about calorie intake vs calorie maintenance (doesn't matter about the macronutrients)
2. Can use low calorie restricting meals
3. Initial loss of fat occurs from loss in fat glycogen and water loss
What does the term yo-yo dieting mean?
Repeated cycles of weight gain and weight loss can lead to difficulty in losing weight as the body becomes accustomed to energy conserving
What does diet + exercise ensure?
1. Enhances fat metabolisation from adipose depots and fat catabolism
2. Protects against protein loss and improves insulin sensitivity
Explain how the Orlistat (Xenical and Ali) works?
1. Taken with meals
2. Inhibits pancreatic lipase (enzyme that breaks triglycerides into ingested fat)
3. Increased excretion of dietary triglycerides
4. Prevents about 30% of dietary fat from being absorbed