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Flashcards in GI Patho Deck (87)
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1

What is C. diff?

infectious bacteria that can result in life-threatening diarrhea

2

symptoms of C. diff

watery diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea and belly pain and tenderness

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precautions for C. diff

contact (hand-washing, gown, gloves)

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Obstipation

intractable constipation w/ resulting fecal impaction or inability to pas gas and retention of hard, dry, stools in the rectum and colon

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Where can constipation refer pain to?

abdomen, anterior hip, groin or thigh

6

anorexia

loss of appetite w/ an inability to eat

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anorexia nervosa

prolonged loss of appetite and inability to eat

concerns: nutritional and electrolyte imbalance causing cardiac arrhythmia and neuropathy

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dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

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achalasia

lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax and food is trapped in the esophagus

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vomit that looks like coffee grounds

consistent w/ gastric ulcer, gastritis or esophageal cancer

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bright red blood in stool

lower colon/rectum disorders

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tarry or dark stool

upper digestive tract disorders

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referred pain pattern: esophagus

midback, midthoracic spine pain

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referred pain pattern: liver, diaphragm, pericardium

shoulder

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referred pain pattern: gallbladder, stomach, pancreas or small intestine

midback and scapula

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referred pain pattern: colon, appendix or pelvic viscera

pelvis, low back or sacrum

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Characteristics of hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

viral or bacterial infection, chemical agents, autoimmune or biliary cirrhosis and metabolic disorders

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hepatitis A transmission

fecal-oral route

contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact

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hepatitis B transmission

blood, body fluids or body tissues

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hepatitis A severity

acure = mild to severe

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hepatitis B severity

mild (acute) to severe

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hepatitis C transmission

same as HBV (blood, body fluids or body tissue)

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hepatitis D

dependent upon having hep B

24

Hepatitis D prognosis

poot, often present w/ liver failure

25

Initial signs of Hepatitis

preicteric phase

low-grade fever
anorexia
nausea
vomitting
diarrhea
fatigue
malaise
headache
abdominal tenderness
myalgia and arthralgia

26

Jaundice phase of Hepatitis

icteric phase

fever
jaundice
enlarged liver w/ tenderness
abatement of earlier symptoms
amber-colored or dark urine

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elevated lab values w/ Hepatitis

hepatic transaminases and bilirubin

28

Cirrhosis

irreversible chronic injury of the hepatic parenchyma as a result of chronic hepatitis

29

clinical presentation of Cirrhosis

jaundice
peripheral edema
Dupuytren's contracture
palmar erythmea
angiomas
hepatomegaly
splenomegaly
ascites

30

hepatic encephalopathy

neuropsychiatric abnormalities w/ personality changes. etc

asterisks (liver flap)

Lactulose