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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (49)
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1

What is diabetes caused by?

deficiency or absence of insulin secretion by the beta cells or by defects of the insulin receptors

2

What does diabetes cause?

abnormally high level of sugar or glucose in the blood

3

Characteristics of Type I diabetes

decreases in size and # of islet cells resulting in absolute deficiency in insulin secretion

Occurs in children and young adults

abrupt onset of symptoms

insulin dependent

prone to keto acidosis

4

etiology of Type I diabetes

cause by autoimmune abnormalities, genetic causes or environmental causes

5

Insulin-dependent

requires insulin delivery

6

Type 2 diabetes characteristics

gradual onset

not insulin dependent

not prone to ketoacidosis

7

etiology of type 2

progressive disease caused by a combination of:
insulin resistance
progressive decline in pancreatic insulin production
excessive hepatic glucose production
inappropriate glucagon secretion

8

risk factors for Type 2 DM

linked to obesity and older adults (>45)
Family hx of diabetes
unhealthy eating
lack of physical activity

9

secondary diabetes

associated with other conditions, endocrine disease, drugs and chemical agents

10

other conditions associated w/ secondary DM

pancreatic disease or removal of pancreatic tissue

11

endocrine disease associated w/ secondary DM

acromegaly
Cushing's syndromes
pheochromocytoma

12

drugs associated w/ secondary DM

somem dieuretics
diazoxide
glucocorticoids
levodopa

13

gestational DM

glucose intolerance w/ pregnancy

most likely in 3rd trimester

14

prediabetes

impaired glucose intolerance w/ abnormal response to oral glucose test

15

signs and symptoms of DM

hyper glycemia
glycosuria
polyuria
polydispsia
polyphasic
unexplained weight loss
fatigue
blurred vision, headaches

16

gycosuria

elevated sugar in urine

17

polyuria

excessive exertion of urine

18

polydipsia

excessive thirst

19

polyphagia

excessive hunger

20

Microvascular disease compilations of DM

retinopathy
renal disease
polyneuropathy

21

macrovascular disease compilations of DM

dyslipidemia (accelerated atherosclerosis)

CVA, stroke
MI
Peripheral artery disease

22

integumentary compilations of DM

degenerative connective tissue changes
slow healing of sores or cuts
anhidrosis
increased risk of ulcers, infections

23

MSK compilations of DM

jt stiffness and increased risk of contractures

increased risk of adhesive capsulitis of shoulder, tenosynovitis, plantar fascitis

24

neuromuscular compilations of DM

diabetic polyneuropathy
diabetic autonomic neuropathy
manoneuropathies
entrapment neuropathie

25

diabetic polyneuropathy

symmetrical numb and tingling of hands and feet (stocking glove)

distal to proximal

altered sensation and motor weakness

26

diabetic autonomic neuropathy

cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

integumentary

GI

metabolic

27

cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

resting tachycardia
exercise intolerant w/ abnormal HR, BP and CO responses
exercise induced hypoglycemia
postural hypotension

28

integumentary w/ diabetic autonomic neuropathy

anhidrosis (inability to sweat normally)
abnormal sweating
dry skin
heat intolerance

29

GI w/ diabetic autonomic neuropathy

gastroparesis
GERD
diarrhea
constipation

30

metabolic w/ diabetic autonomic neuropathy

abnormal or delayed responses to hypoglycemia
lack of awareness of hypoglycemia