Gibson's Theory Flashcards Preview

Z - Psychology - Perception > Gibson's Theory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gibson's Theory Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

What does Gibson state about perception?

That it is not the result of learning or guesswork but it is a natural and automatic process

2

What elements does Gibson place emphasis on in his theory?

Optic flow patterns
Texture gradients
Affordances

3

What is the visual information we receive from the environment referred to as?

The optical array

4

What is the optical array?

The visual information we revived from the environment

5

What are optic flow patterns?

Changes in the optic array due to movement

6

What are changes inn the optic array referred to as?

Optic flow patterns

7

How do optic flow patterns occur?

Because of movement

8

What information do optic flow patterns provide us with?

Information about our position, direction and speed

9

What type of movements cause changes to the optic array?

The environment moving
The person moving
The persons eyes moving even though they are stationary

10

What is a texture gradient?

A sudden change in texture

11

What are texture gradients a good indicator of?

Distance

12

What types of things may texture gradients indicate?

A change in the direction of a surface e.g. A shift from wall to floor
Distance

13

In regards to texture gradient, how do things in the foreground appear?

Bigger and more detailed

14

In relation to texture gradient, how do things in the distance appear?

Smaller and less detailed

15

How does Gibson believe our perceptual system has evolved?

To perceive directly the potential uses of objects (affordances)

16

What are affordances?

The potential of uses of object

17

What can affordances also be described as?

Action possibilities

18

Give an example of an affordance

A cabbage could be used as a football, doorstop or weapon

19

How do we come to conclusions about potential uses of objects?

They have certain characteristics we can perceive use for

20

What is Gibson's theory called?

The bottom up theory

21

Briefly, what are the strengths of Gibson's bottom up theory?

Emphasises the importance of movement
Biological basis, supported by studies
Better than top-down theories because humans view much of the world the same way
There are many useful applications

22

Why was Gibson right to place a large emphasis on vision for action?

It has more ecological validity

23

What is vision for action?

The importance of movement

24

What is the importance of movement also known as?

Vision for action

25

In regards to vision for action, why do Top-Down theories lack?

Because they mainly look at two dimensional objects in static conditions

26

Why is Gibson's theory having a firm biological basis a strength?

Because it is supported by studies that suggest perception is innate

27

What studies suggest perception is innate?

E.J. Gibson's visual cliff study

28

How does E.J. Gibson's study support Gibson's theory?

It suggests infants have a depth perception at an early age, therefore it is most likely innate and a nature process as Gibson suggests.

29

How is Gibson's theory better than Top-Down theories?

They look mainly at two dimensional objects in static conditions
They would also suggest more individual differences and errors in perception than there tend to be

30

What applications does Gibson's theory have?

Recent research (new scientists 2005) has used information from the optic array and affordances to design a robot capable of movement
Road markings approaching roundabouts make people aware of their speed