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Flashcards in Gregorys Theory Deck (38)
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What is Gregory's theory known as?

Top down theory


How did Gregory define perception?

Perception involves going beyond the immediately given information of the senses


Briefly explain Gregory's theory...

An active process
Past experiences, context, knowledge, expectations and motivations affect how we interpret information
Quick process, slowed down with ambiguous information
Make a best guess at what an object is and test it against evidence of our eyes


What affects how we perceive information?

Past experience
Own knowledge


What ideas can be used to explain Gregory's theory?

Perceptual set
Visual illusions


What is a perceptual set?

A bias to perceive somethings more readily than others


Why does a perceptual set occur?

The brain is pushed to perforce things in certain ways due to factors such as past experience, context, motivation, expectation, knowledge.


How does the idea of a perceptual set support Gregory's theory?

It fits his idea that perception is motivated by experience and guess work


What is an example of a perceptual set?

Minturn and Bruner


What study is relevant to Gregory's theory?

Minturn and Bruner


What were Minturn and Bruner's findings?

The middle figure was more likely to be seen as the number 13 if presented with 12 and 14. It was more likely to be seen as B if presented with A and C


Draw Minturn and Bruner's stimulus...

Add through Internet
12 B 15


How do Minturn and Bruner's findings support Gregory's theory?

They suggest perception is not just influenced by the sensory data but the persons interpretation of it due to context and knowledge. It is what the brain does with the information not just the information itself


What did Gregory believe about visual illusions?

That the brain creates a hypothesis to explain sensory data


What do visual illusions illustrate?

How we can be misled and dress the wrong conclusions about what we see


How do many illusions arise?

From our tendency to perceive three dimensional objects from two dimensional drawings


What is an example of a visual illusion?



What is an example of a distortion?

The ponzo illusion
The Muller Lyer illusion


Draw the ponzo illusion



Explain what the ponzo illusion is?

Two horizontal lines are equal in length but the top one is perceived as being longer due to converging lines exciting a perception of depth


Help does Gregory explain the ponzo illusion?

We see this as a three dimensional object with the top line further away than the bottom line. As things feels further away than they are (size constancy) our brain interprets the top line as being longer.


Could add in Mu



How does the Muller alter illusion create an illusion?

We are lead to believe there is a perception of depth which leads us the perceive the vertical line of the left hand finger as being longer than the right


What affects how one interprets the Muller Lyer illusion?



How does culture affect how one perceives the Muller Lyer illusion?

Those who live in an industrialised country live in what is known as a 'carpenter world' can see the illusion, but those who live in pre-industrialised cultures and live in round huts do not fall for the illusion


What is a carpenter world?

An environment built with lots of square and rectangular objects


How does living in a carpenter world affect how the muller Lyer illusion is perceived?

Because we are used to living in a world full of rectangular and square objects so perceive the illusion, whereas those who live in preindustrialised cultures and live in round huts don't


What evidence supports Gregory's explanation of the muller Lyer illusion?

Cataracts patients who have had their eye sight restored see the lines as the same length digesting learning through visual experience is necessary to fall for the muller Lyer illusion. This further supports Gregory's ideas that the environment, experience and learning affect our understanding.


How do Segall's findings support Gregory's explanation of the muller Lyer illusion?

European groups were more susceptible to the illusion suggesting Gregory is right and our past experiences, context and knowledge do affect how one perceives


What evidence contradicts Gregory's explanation of the muller Lyer illusion?

Children are more susceptible to the muller Lyer illusion than adults, even though they have had less experience of the carpented environment digesting Gregory had placed to much of a stress on learning and experience and their effect on perception.