Glaucoma Flashcards Preview

Y2 Ophthalmology > Glaucoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glaucoma Deck (26):
1

eye disease which might pre-dispose to glaucoma

thickened cataracts lens, ectopic lens (potentially from trauma), diabetic retinopathy, tumours

2

where does aqueous humour exit the anterior chamber of the eye?

through the trabecular meshwork

3

the trabecular meshwork allows the aqueous humour to travel through to the ____ __ _____ into the episcleral venous system

canal of schlemm

4

prolonged elevation of IOP can cause... (3)

changes in the optic nerve, peripheral visual loss, blindness

5

acute closed angle glaucoma can be described as...

abrupt total closure of the angle causing a rise in IOP that is not self-limiting

6

chronic open angle glaucoma can be described as...

elevated IOP from an incomplete angle closure that is often asymptomatic

7

risk factors for open angle glaucoma are...

raised IOP, black race, FHx, age, hypertension, diabetes

8

How is open angle glaucoma diagnosed?

fundoscopy with slit lamp, IOP measurement, visual field assessment

9

Treatment options for open angle glaucoma (8)

prostaglandin analogues, b-blockers, a-agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, miotics, combination drops, surgery, laser surgery

10

Prostaglandin analogues example...

lantoprost

11

Prostaglandin analogues such as lantoprost, decrease IOP by...

increasing uveoscleral outflow

12

b-blockers used to decrease IOP include

timolol

13

b-blockers such as timolol decrease IOP by...

decreasing aqueous production

14

a-agonists used to decrease IOP include...

brimonidine

15

a-agonists such as brimonidine decrease IOP by...

increasing uveoscleral outflow and decreasing aqueous production

16

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used to decrease IOP include...

dorzolomide, acetazolomide (PO)

17

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as dorzolomide decrease IOP by...

decreasing production of aqueous

18

miotics used to decrease IOP include

pilocarpine

19

miotics such as pilocarpine decrease IOP by...

decreasing resistance to outflow...they are mAChR agonists

20

The pupil may appear ______ in acute closed angle glaucoma

fixed and dilated

21

Common symptoms of acute closed angle glaucoma

nausea, vomiting, halos around lights, worsening in dark room, headache, painful red eye

22

the onset of acute closed angle glaucoma may be...

hours to days

23

Things to avoid in acute closed angle glaucoma...(2)

eye patches or darkened rooms - this worsens due to the pupil dilating in the dark

24

initial treatment of acute closed angle glaucoma includes (3)

b-blockers (timolol), pilocarpine, IV acetazolomide - may also give anti-emetics and analgesia

25

common complications of acute closed angle glaucoma

CRVO, CRAO, visual loss, repeated episodes in either eye

26

follow up treatment of acute closed angle glaucoma once IOP has settled

peripheral iridectomy in both eyes - small hole in pupil at 12 o'clock to reduce resistance to aqueous movement