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Y2 Ophthalmology > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (30):
1

Keratitis affects...

the cornea

2

Endophthalmitis affects...

the whole globe

3

Common causes of bacterial conjunctivitis in neonates

Staph aureus, neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis

4

Common causes of bacterial conjunctivitis in all ages

staph aureus, strep penumoniae, haemophilus influenza

5

Common treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis

chloramphenicol drops or ointment (qds)

6

How do you confirm bacterial conjunctivitis?

tissue swab from the fornix - you may wish to give an LA drop first

7

Common causes of viral conjunctivitis (3)

Adenovirus, Herpes simplex, herpes zoster

8

How might adenovirus conjunctivitis present?

watery, red eye following URTI

9

Treatment for adenovirus conjunctivitis

cold compress should suffice, give antibacterial drops if worried about secondary infection

10

Presentation of herpes zoster conjunctivitis

Hutchisons sign, red eye and spots on nose

11

Treatment of herpes zoster conjunctivitis

anti-virals such as acyclovir

12

Complication of herpes zoster ophthalmicus

post-herpetic neuralgia

13

What is hutchisons sign?

vesicles on the side of the nose which precede herpes zoster ophthalmicus

14

Common presentation of chlamydial conjunctivitis

often chronic history which is unresponsive to treatment, suspect if bilateral conjunctivitis in young adults

15

Clinical sign of chlamydial conjunctivitis

rice grains in eyelids which can cause chronic follicular scarring of the lid

16

What is a hypopyon?

an obvious fluid level in the anterior segment of the anterior chamber

17

Bacterial keratitis treatment

hourly eye drops for at least 48 hours and daily review

18

Presentation of herpes viral keratitis

Dendritic ulcers with a very painful eye which can be recurrent. Pain is less each time but vision will deteriorate

19

Treatment of viral keratitis

Zovirax

20

Must be avoided with viral keratitis

Steroids - may cause a corneal melt

21

Presentation of adenoviral keratitis

Usually after URTI, subepithelail infiltrates but self-limiting. Can be contagious

22

Orbital cellulitis presentation

Painful and swelling around the eye. May be pyrexial. Proptosis may occur. Well defined redness around the orbit

23

Treatment of orbital cellulitis

broad spectrum antibiotic and monitor closely. Abcess may require draining

24

Cause of endophthalmitis

post-surgical or endogenous

25

Presentation of endophthalmitis

VERY painful, with decreasing vision and very red eye - sight threatening

26

Treatment of endophthalmitis

Intravitreal antibiotics and topical antibiotics

27

Toxoplasma gondii

protozoan infection. 10% have it in latent form. From cats and raw meat

28

Cautions for Chloramphenicol

Aplastic anemia; grey baby syndrome

29

Alternative antibiotic if chloramphenicol not an option?

Ofloxacin

30

Common contaminant of eyedrops after 4 weeks

Pseudomonas