Common Eye Conditions Flashcards Preview

Y2 Ophthalmology > Common Eye Conditions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common Eye Conditions Deck (50):
1

Most common cause of blindness in adults 35-65years?

diabetic retinopathy

2

treatment options for wet macular degeneration

anti-VEGF injections, laser photocoagulation, intravitreal steroids

3

Which form of macular degeneration carries the worst prognosis?

wet macular degeneration

4

How is orbital cellulitis diagnosed?

CT, ENT with ophthalmology review

5

Features of wet macular degeneration?

choroidal neovascularisation, leakage of serous fluid and blood

6

What causes neovascularisation in the retina?

growth factors released due to retinal ischaemia

7

Prevention of cataracts?

wear sunglasses, decrease oxidative stress and stop smoking

8

common complication of ophthalmic zoster

post-herpetic neuralgia

9

How is Ramsay Hunt Syndrome treated?

aciclovir and prednisolone

10

What is Ramsay Hunt syndrome?

herpes zoster of the facial nerve, often in the elderly

11

Common triad of symptoms with horners syndrome

miosis, ptosis and anhidrosis (inability to sweat on that side)

12

What causes microaneurysms to form in the retina?

pericyte dysfunction

13

presentation of ophthalmic zoster

pain and neuralgia in CN V1 dermatome preceding a blistering inflammaed rash

14

Straight lines starting to appear wavy is a sign of...

macular degeneration

15

Diagnosis of cataract is best made...

with a dilated pupil and slit lamp or ophthalmascope

16

Risk factors for ophthalmic zoster

increasing age, trauma to the area, immunocompromise

17

What is the most common cause of visual impairment worldwide?

cataracts

18

Predictors of ocular involvement with ophthalmic zoster (3)

Hutchinsons sign, around 50% HZO will have globe involvement - purulent conjunctivitis, visual loss, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, irititis

19

Horners syndrome affects the eye because of nerve impingement of which nerve roots?

C8-T2

20

Common organisms causing orbital cellulitis?

staph aureus, strep pneumoniae

21

Horners syndrome may affect the eye by causing...

miosis (small pupil) or ptosis (dropping eyelid)

22

How is surgery for cataracts carried out?

one eye at a time, ultrasound to dissolve original lens and then replaced with plastic or silicone lens...should correct refractive error

23

What are common risk factors for cataract development?

age, congenital, trauma, smoking, alcohol, diabetes, uveitis, systemic drugs i.e. steroids, hypocalcaemia

24

signs of diabetic retinopathy on fundoscopy?

blot haemorrhages, cotton wool spots, microaneurysms, neovascularisation

25

How does Ramsay Hunt syndrome present?

severe otalgia preceding CN VII palsy, vesicles form in the ear, deep meatus, +/- soft palate and tongue, may also have vertigo, deafness and tinitus

26

Risk factors for macular degeneration?

age >60 years, smoking, FHx, caucasian, high cumulative sunlight exposure, female sex

27

Best treatment for cataracts

surgery - although limited outcome if combined with macular degeneration (around 30% patients)

28

Presentation of a child with orbital cellulitis

inflammation around the orbit, fever, lid swelling and decreased eye movements and diplopia

29

Which group is typically affected by orbital cellulitis?

children

30

What is a cataract?

opacification of the lens

31

What is preseptal cellulitis?

infection of the soft tissues anterior to the orbital septum

32

Treatment for preseptal cellulitis

amoxicillin 1g TDS for 7-10 days

33

Presentation of cataracts

blurred vision, bilateral causes gradual painless loss of vision, glare/haloes around street lights, change in refractive error

34

What is reassuring in the presentation of ophthalmic zoster?

visual acuity and normal corneal appearance

35

A subtype of cataract is posterior subcapsular cataracts...how does it differ?

progresses faster and usually is from steroid use

36

Signs of macular degeneration?

reduced visual acuity - blurred and distorted vision, particularly the central vision

37

common causes of preseptal cellulitis

sinusitit or facial skin lesions

38

What distinguishes preseptal cellulitis from orbital cellulitis?

lack of painful eye movments, diplopia and visual impairement - however if in doubt treat as if orbital cellulitis

39

treatment options for dry macular degeneration

none

40

Treatment of orbital cellulitis

Surgical drainage of abscess and antibiotics

41

Features of dry macular degeneration?

Drusen around the macula - yellow round spots

42

What causes exudates in the retina?

endothelial dysfunction --> increased vascular permeability and protein leakage

43

What is orbital cellulitis?

infection of the soft tissues posterior to the orbital septum - sight and life threatening!

44

Why does Hutchinson's sign predict involvement of the globe?

nasociliary branch of CN V1 affects the globe

45

What is the most common cause of blindness in the UK?

age related macular degeneration

46

What is the main treatment for opthalmic zoster?

oral antivirals within 72 hours of rash appearing

47

What is proptosis?

protrusion of the orbital contents

48

Complications associated with orbital cellulitis

orbital abscesses, visual loss (CRVO, CRAO, optic neuritis), meningitis, brain abscess, thrombosis in the dural or cavernous sinus

49

When should patients with ophthalmic zoster be referred?

any pain, redness or altered vision

50

What are the two forms of age related macular degeneration?

dry and wet