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Flashcards in Global child health Deck (24)
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Define child (<5) mortality rate 

 Probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before reaching the age of 5


Define infant mortality rate 

 Probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before reaching the age of 1


Define live birth 

Any sign of life after birth irrespective of gestation


What are the top 5 causes of infant death globally ?

  •  Preterm (premature birth) birth complications
  •  Pneumonia
  •  Intrapartum-related (the period from the onset of labor to the end of the third stage of labor) complications
  •  Diarrhoea
  •  Congenital abnormalities


What are the top 5 causes of infant mortality in sub-saharan africa 

  •  Pneumonia
  •  Preterm birth complications
  •  Intrapartum-related complications
  •  Diarrhoea
  •  Malaria


What is the main point about the difference in child deaths between sub-saharan africa and Europe ?

That children in sub-saharan Africa are 14x's more likely to die before 5 than in Europe and more than half of these deaths are preventable 


How many of all child deaths are linked to under nutrition ?



Define what is meant by a still born baby?

A stillbirth is a baby born dead after 24 completed weeks of pregnancy.

If the baby dies before 24 completed weeks, it's known as a miscarriage or late foetal loss.


What is the prevention and treatment method for pneumonia in kids ?


  • Vaccinations
  • Breastfeeding then complimentary nutrition
  • Good hygiene


  • Adequate access to community health or hospital


What is the treatment and prevention for diarrhoea in kids ?

Due to it mainly caused by contaminated water and food prevention follows:


  • Safe drinking water, good hygiene and sanitation
  • Breastfeeding and good nutrition
  • Vaccination


  • Oral rehydration solution (ORS)
  • Zinc supplements


What are WHO's 6 solutions to preventable deaths under 5yrs old ?

  1. Immediate and exclusive breastfeeding
  2. Skilled attendants for antenatal, birth, and postnatal care
  3. Access to nutrition and micronutrients
  4. Family knowledge of danger signs in a child’s health
  5. Water, sanitation, and hygiene
  6. Immunizations


How is HIV trasmitted to kids ?

  • Pregnancy
  • Delivery
  • Breastfeeding


What are the prevention methods to try to prevent spread of HIV to infants ?

  • Maternal (mother) lifelong antiretroviral treatment
  • Screen for and treat other STDs, especially herpes
  • Infant prophylaxis for 6 weeks or throughout breastfeeding


Describe the presentation of HIV in infants 

  • Recurrent or severe common childhood illnesses eg otitis media, diarrhoea
  • Recurrent oral candidiasis not responding to treatment
  • Recurrent severe bacterial infections eg meningitis
  • Failure to thrive or growth failure
  • Generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly
  • Persistent fever
  • Encephalopathy
  • Chronic parotitis
  • PCP, Kaposi sarcoma, TB, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia….


How is HIV diagnosed in kids <18months old?

virological PCR for HIV DNA or RNA


How is HIV diagnosed in kids >18 months old?

serological rapid antibody test


Describe the treatment of HIV 

 HAART: Two NRTIs plus one NNRTI or protease inhibitor

◦Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) eg abacavir and lamivudine

◦Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(NNRTI) eg efavirenz for >3yr olds

◦Protease inhibitor eg kaletra for <3yr olds

Also give Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and routine vaccinations


Describe the presentation of TB 

  • Chronic cough or fever >2 weeks
  •  night sweats
  •  weight loss
  •  lymphadenopathy
  • Associated with HIV


Describe the treatment of TB 


◦Two months of : Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide +/- Ethambutol (RIPE)

◦Then four months of isoniazid and rifampicin


How is TB prevented ?

Give BCG vaccination 


Why should you not give the BCG vaccination to someone with HIV ?

It can cause BCG disseminated disease. i.e. giving a live virus will result in it spreading due to the immunodeficiency caused by HIV


What is the presentation of malaria ?

  • Fever
  • Pallor (unhealthy pale)
  • Non-specific malasie (discomfort/illness)


What is the treatment of malaria ?

  •  Treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for 3 days
  •  Severe malaria treat with IM or IV artesunate until can tolerate oral


What are some of the non-health factors influencing child health?

  • War and conflict 
  • Maternal education (Secondary school education decreases chance of child dying by two thirds)