Global Health: Non-infectious diseases (Cancer) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Global Health: Non-infectious diseases (Cancer) Deck (19):

What is epidemiological transition?

It is the changes in levels and causes of mortality- shown by decline in total mortality and significant reduction in infectious diseases

This increases relative role of chronic non-communicable diseases- cancers, CVD and chronic rest disease and diabetes.

ET accompanies socio-demographic and health system changes


Why do health and disease patterns change?

Due to to demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, technological, cultural, environmental and bio changes


Give an example of the emergence of a new infectious disease



Give an example of an increase in previously controlled infections

TB and dengue


What are changes in disease mostly due to?

Demography and epidemiology


How are diseases classified?

Communicable, non-communicable and injuries


What is the difference between demographic and epidemiological transition?

Demographic- from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

Epidemiological- infectious diseases replaced by degenerative and man made diseases


What are the top 5 leading causes of deaths (2012)?

Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory infections, trachea/ bronchus and lung cancers


Why do developing countries have greater death rates in relation to prevalence?

Decreased resources and healthcare available


How many cancer deaths in 2012 and how many new cases?

In 2012, there were 8 million cancer deaths and 14 million new cases of cancer worldwide


Malaria is.....

one of the 6 most common causes of death from infectious disease worldwide


In low income countries, which cancer is most prevalent?

Cervical and breast cancer


In middle income countries, which cancer is most prevalent?

Breast cancer


In middle income countries, which cancer has the highest mortality rate?

Lung cancer


For high income countries which cancer is most dominant in terms of incidence?

Breast, prostate and lung. Lung cancer has highest mortality, the colorectal then breasts


What is the most frequent cause of premature cancer death?

Lung cancer in developed countries for men and liver cancer in west africa for men. For women it is lung cancer (EU, America, Canada and China) but is most other places it is breast cancer


Why has stomach cancer decreased since 1950?

It was proved that decrease salt use and refrigeration of food reduced contamination


What agents are related to cancer deaths?

Hepatitis- liver
H. pylori- stomach
HPV- cervical cancer/ oral and pharyngeal
EBV- lymphomas


What percentage of cancers due to infection occur in developed and developing countries?

8% in developed and 27% in developing (percentage of all cancer deaths)