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OCR Geography A2 > Globalisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Globalisation Deck (189):
1

What are the dimensions of globalisation?

PULSED - Political, Urban, Linguistic, Social/Cultural, Economic/Environmental, Demographic

2

Give an example of an economic dimension of globalisation.

The WTO and TNCs expanding global trade, leading to rapid economic growth in RICs and NICs

3

Give an example of an urban dimension of globalisation.

There is a hierarchy of global cities that command the global economy, with New York, London and Tokyo right at the top

4

Give an example of a social dimension of globalisation.

Western culture has spread throughout the world through TV, cinema, the Internet and TNCs, however other cultures have also influenced the West through cuisine and religion

5

Give an example of a linguistic dimension of globalisation.

English has emerged as the language of the 'global village', with 1.9 billion speakers (1.5 of which speak it as a second language). Many local languages are in danger of dying out (Bhutan)

6

Give an example of a political dimension of globalisation.

Growth of trading blocs (EU, NAFTA) and 'world government' (UN) but also rise of global terrorism

7

Give an example of a demographic dimension of globalisation.

Desire of people to move across borders

8

Give an example of a environmental dimension of globalisation.

Long range transportation damages the environment globally, international cooperation through Earth Summits

9

Define globalisation.

The increasing interconnection and interdependence of the world's economic, cultural and political systems

10

Define global shift.

The large scale filter down of economic activity from MEDCs to NICs to LEDCs

11

Define Newly Industrialised Countries.

Nations that have undergone rapid and successful industrialisation since the 1960s

12

Define transnational corporation.

Corporation which has the ability to organise and control operation in more than one country, even if it does not own them

13

Define foreign direct investment.

Overseas investments in physical capital by TNCs

14

Define internationalisation.

Extension of economic activities across national boundaries; essentially a quantitative process that leads to a more extensive geographical pattern of economic activity

15

Define new international division of labour.

Divides production into different skills and tasks that are spread across regions and countries rather than within a single company

16

Define World Trade Organisation.

Established in 1995, a permanent organisation to arbitrate trade disputes

17

Define global civil society.

A range of organisations and individuals who are challenging the way globalisation operates; their aim is to civilise globalisation, making the process more democratic at all levels

18

Define religious fundamentalism.

Movements favouring strict observance of religious teaching

19

One in every 35 people are...

...living outside the country of their birth

20

Define deindustrialisation.

The long-term absolute decline of employment in manufacturing

21

Define global city.

Major world city providing financial, business and other significant services to all parts of the world

22

15% of jobs in the UK are in what sector?

Secondary; however output has increased by 13% since the early 1990s

23

Why is there a widening social division in the UK?

Wages at the top end in the financial and businesses sectors have risen due to the success of these industries, however wages for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs have stayed low

24

The UK is the .............. most attractive country in the world to invest in.

Second

25

What is one advantage of migration into the UK?

Many migrants do unskilled jobs that Brits don't want to do, but they also fill skill shortages

26

What is one disadvantage of migration into the UK?

Strain on public services

27

The UK has a comparative advantage in the manufacture of...

...pharmaceuticals, aircraft parts and scientific equipment

28

How much of the UK's exports is made up of financial and business services?

A third and they are known as invisible exports

29

How much of global financial service exports come from the UK?

25%

30

How much of global computer exports come from the UK?

14%

31

How much of the UK workforce is employed by TNCs?

20%

32

What are food miles?

The distance food is transported to reach markets

33

How long does it take to travel 293 miles from London to Paris on the Eurostar?

2 hours, 15 minutes - this is a great example of the transport revolution

34

What effect does low production costs in China have on the UK economy?

Low inflation

35

When did China start to open its economy to international trade?

1978

36

The Chinese economy grew at an average of ...... % over three decades.

9.2

37

China produces half of the world's....

.... clothes and microwaves

38

Why so there regional inequality in China?

Wages in urban areas are much higher and rural areas tend to be ageing as young people move to find well paid work

39

In 1992 China's oil consumption was just 3.8% of the world's total, by 2006 this had increased to ..... % despite there only being ..... cars per 1000 people.

8.6, 20

40

China is the world's .......... largest producer of greenhouse gases.

Second

41

What is the negative impact of China protecting its forests?

China now has to import 100 million cubic metres of wood a year, over 25% of which is illegally felled in Brazil, Russia, south-east Asia and Africa

42

People in Guangdong province are suffering fro health issues relating to...

...high levels of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which are above safe levels for several months of the year

43

Why have Pegatron, an Apple supplier, been criticised over their working conditions?

Job applicants have their ID taken from them and are then told how to fill out their application; including agreeing to work overtime and standing up

44

Why do some Chinese factories have nets on the outside of the building?

To catch workers attempting to commit suicide

45

How much of Guangdong's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020?

85%

46

The private sector generates ....% of China's GDP.

70

47

Define Least Developed Countries.

The poorest and weakest economies in the developing world; subset of LEDCs

48

How much do LDCs often spend on their debts?

40% of their GDP

49

What are TNCs?

Capitalist enterprises that engage in foreign direct investment and organise the production of goods and services in more than one country

50

What organisational structure does Toyota use?

Product specialisation

51

What organisational structure does Nike use?

Transnational vertical integration

52

Why doesn't Nike make any clothes or shoes itself?

It subcontracts work to South Korean and Taiwanese companies

53

How many contract workers does Nike have?

650,000 in 700 factories worldwide

54

More than 75% of Nike's workforce is based in what continent?

Asia

55

How does Nike show Fordist characteristics through the production of its Air Max Penney basketball shoes?

The shoes are made of 52 component parts from 5 countries and will have passed through 120 people during production

56

Define Fordist.

Traditional manufacturing systems based on the techniques of mass production introduced by Henry Ford I the early twentieth century

57

Define flexible manufacturing.

New management techniques such as just-in-time technology; wider range of specialised products

58

Toyota is the ........... largest car manufacturer.

Second (after General Motors)

59

Toyota has a policy of producing vehicles where...

...the demand exists

60

Toyota's overseas operations become largely...

...self-reliant

61

Define lean manufacturing.

Carrying minimal stocks, just-in-time delivery, right first time quality management

62

Toyota has 52 bases in how many countries?

27

63

Nike produced a report in 2005 about their factories after sweatshop allegations. What did it show?

Abuses of human rights such as restricting access to toilets and water, denying workers a day off per week, forced overtime, wages below the national minimum, verbal harassment

64

What are the positive impacts to Beaverton, Oregon of Nike outsourcing to Vietnam?

Stimulates high-level skills in design, marketing and development; contribution to local and national tax base

65

What are the negative impacts to Beaverton, Oregon of Nike outsourcing to Vietnam?

Negative impact on balance of payments, less job creation

66

What are the positive impacts of Nike outsourcing to Vietnam?

Creates employment with higher wages than traditional industries, improves skill base, cumulative causation, positive contribution to balance of payments, sets high standards, contribution to tax base

67

What are the negative impacts of Nike outsourcing to Vietnam?

Exploitation of workers, poor working conditions, child labour, undermining of local culture, political influence of TNCs, investment easily withdrawn

68

How much does of world GDP does world trade account for?

25%, double that of 1970

69

If Africa increased its share of world trade by 1% it would earn an additional...

...£49billion, 5 times the amount it receives in aid

70

Trade is worth ...... times as much as aid.

20

71

What are IMF and World Bank loans dependent on?

The countries they are loaning to must open their markets

72

Why might LEDCs struggle to sell agricultural produce at a lower price than producers in the USA and EU?

The industry is heavily subsidised in these areas

73

Define terms of trade.

The price of a country's exports relative to the price of imports and the changes that take place over time

74

What is an issue associated with the rapid reduction of import tariffs?

Imports are suddenly the cheaper option and therefore domestic producers have to lower the prices of their goods, leading to a fall in rural incomes (India)

75

Define protectionism.

The institution of policies which protect a country's industries against competition from cheap imports

76

In 1990 there were less than 25 regional trade agreements; by 1998 there were more than...

...90

77

Manufacturing accounts for ....% of total exports in the UK.

60; despite being a post-industrial economy

78

When did China become the world's largest exporter?

Late 2007, overtaking Germany

79

The UK has a merchandise trade deficit and a commercial services trade....

....surplus

80

Why is the UK a net importer of agricultural produce?

It's climate means it can't grow a large range of crops

81

What is the poorest country in South America?

Bolivia

82

What trade blocs is Bolivia part of?

Mercosur and the Andean Community

83

Why does Bolivia get subsidised tariffs on exports to the USA?

The USA aims to promote economic alternatives to drug trade through their preferential tariff treatment under the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act

84

What is the UK's share in world total merchandise exports?

3.71%

85

What is China's share in world total merchandise exports?

8.02%

86

What is Bolivia's share in world total merchandise exports?

0.03%

87

What is the UK's share in world total merchandise imports?

4.99%

88

What is China's share in world total merchandise imports?

6.38%

89

What is Bolivia's share in world total merchandise imports?

0.02%

90

What is the UK's share in world total commercial service exports?

8.26%

91

What is China's share in world total commercial service exports?

3.32%

92

What is Bolivia's share in world total commercial service exports?

0.02%

93

What is the UK's share in world total commercial service imports?

6.49%

94

What is China's share in world total commercial service imports?

3.79%

95

What is Bolivia's share in world total commercial service imports?

0.03%

96

What is the nature and destination of most of the UK's exports?

77.6% manufactures, EU

97

What is the nature and origin of most of the UK's imports?

65.3% manufactures, EU

98

What is the nature and destination of most of China's exports?

92.4% manufactures, USA

99

What is the nature and origin of most of China's imports?

73.2% manufactures, Japan

100

Why is 20% of China's imports fuels and mining products?

Demand from industry, inputs into manufacturing process

101

What is the nature and destination of most of Bolivia's exports?

71.5% fuels and mining products, Brazil

102

What is the nature and origin of most of Bolivia's imports?

78.2% manufactures, Brazil

103

What are the majority of the UK's commercial services classed as?

71.7% not travel or transportation (financial/business/IT services)

104

Bolivia's commercial service exports are 48%...

...travel

105

Define bilateral aid.

Aid supplied directly from one country to another

106

Define multilateral aid.

Aid given by a number of different countries together directly or through international organisations such as the World Bank and IMF

107

Define non-governmental aid.

Aid given by charitable organisations who raise money through public donations and government grants

108

What is short-term emergency aid?

Aid that provides immediate help to cope with the impact of disasters such as earthquakes and disease

109

What is long-term development aid?

International aid intended to promote more equitable global development by creating long-term sustainable economic growth in developing countries

110

What is the foreign exchange gap?

The ability of developing countries to pay for imports that are vital to development

111

What is the savings gap?

The ability to accumulate capital to invest in industry and infrastructure

112

What is the technical gap?

The availability of skilled labour

113

Define tied aid.

Bilateral aid in which the donor country specifies conditions relating to the way the money is spent, often involving goods and services from the donor country

114

What percentage of donations from OECD countries are tied?

40

115

What form does emergency aid usually take?

Food, clothes, medicine, shelter; often led by NGOs who try to ensure aid goes to the people who need it most

116

Define resource nationalisation.

She a country decides to place part or all of one or a number of natural resources under state ownership

117

Guangdong is China's .......... most populous region.

Second

118

How did China start to liberalise its markets in the 1980s.

It set up special economic zones, including 3 in Guangdong, which is part of the reason for the inequality within China

119

In 1984, 14 coastal cities were opened to trade and FDI including....

...Guangzhou

120

Which area has become the powerhouse of China's export led industrial growth?

The Pearl River Delta

121

Give 4 examples of TNCs that located in the PRD.

Samsung, Siemens, Toyota, Coca-Cola

122

In 2000, disposable incomes in Shenzhen were ..... times greater than in rural districts.

4

123

What is the rate of urbanisation in Guangdong?

5-6% a year

124

In Boston what proportion of the population are foreign born?

One in six people

125

What is the Great Firewall?

A government system that limits access to foreign websites

126

What is the Golden Shield?

A do estimated surveillance system

127

How many people in China are employed to police the Internet?

100,000 including people paid to post pro-government messages and steer conversations away from sensitive topics

128

What kinds of websites are blocked by the Chinese government?

Foreign newspapers and human rights organisations. Search engines such as Google are not blocked but if users enter a banned enquiry they are blocked for 90 seconds

129

What is the main goal of China's censorship?

To prevent the organisation of riots or protests, in extreme cases the Internet can be shut down completely to avoid this happening (cut off for 10 months after 2009 Xinjiang riots)

130

What is the population of Bhutan?

Around 700,000

131

What is the official language of Bhutan?

Dzongkha

132

When were TV and the Internet introduced in Bhutan?

Late 1990s

133

What measures did the King of Bhutan put into place to combat globalisation?

Promoted "Gross National Happiness", made everyone wear traditional dress, set quota and tax for tourists, censored TV (particularly against pornography and wrestling)

134

Bhutan installed a state-of-the-art digital telephone network to rival those of Singapore and Hong Kong in 1999, costing...

...$48million

135

Bhutan has a law that states forest cover should remains over...

...60% of the country

136

How and why is Bhutan moving away from an absolute monarchy?

The King is encouraging decentralisation and reducing his powers in order to encourage democracy

137

What did Nepal receive in aid from China after the April 2015 earthquakes?

Search and rescue personnel and $3.3million worth of aid

138

How long did it take India to respond to the earthquake in Nepal?

15 minutes

139

On the day of the earthquake, what did India give to Nepal in terms of emergency aid?

450 personnel, 40 tonnes of relief material (tents, food etc.)

140

India evacuated...

20,000 Indians and 170 other foreign nationals after two days, as well as rescuing stranded climbers on Mount Everest and retrieving bodies

141

The UK made the largest bilateral aid contribution to Nepal at...

...£33 million, along with £50 million raised by the Disasters Emergency Committee (an umbrella group for 13 UK charities)

142

What are goodwill visas?

India provided them to foreign nationals who were caught in the Nepal earthquake so that they could stay in India temporarily

143

How much did the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline cost the World Bank?

$4.2 billion; when it was competed in 2003 it was the largest development project in Africa

144

Why did the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline fail as a development project?

The World bank funded the pipeline on the condition that profits go to development of Chad, however the government then announced that oil money must contribute to the general budget and purchase of weapons or they would drive out the oil companies; money is spent on regime survival and rigged elections

145

How much did the Norwegian government spend on the Lake Turkana fish processing plant in Kenya?

$22 million

146

Why did the Lake Turkana fish processing plant fail as a development project?

The plants demand for water was too high in the desert and the Turkana people (who were supposed to benefit from employ,net at the plant) are traditionally nomadic and don't eat or process fish

147

What is the life expectancy in Zambia?

52

148

What is the literacy rate in Zambia?

71% for males and 56% for females

149

What is the secondary school enrolment rate in Zambia?

30% for boys and 25% for girls

150

What are the three stages of the Camfed campaign for female education?

1. Support girls through schools with bursaries/safety net funds
2. Provide business training, grants and loans
3. CAMA graduate scheme

151

How many girls in Zambia have been supported by Camfed?

200,000; over 90% of which finished their secondary education

152

How many start-up grants and expansion loans have been provided by Camfed?

1500 grants and 300 loans

153

What are many CAMA members trained as?

1500 have been trained as teachers, particularly for rural areas; 600 have been trained as local health advisors focusing on HIV

154

How much more do educated girls earn on average in Zambia?

25%

155

Educating girls leads to improved knowledge and understanding of health issues. This makes educated women...

...3 times less likely to contract HIV

156

Why is having fewer children beneficial in Zambia?

They are healthier; 40% more likely to live past 5 years old

157

Define poverty.

Abstract notion of extreme deficiency or inferiority which is difficult to quantify

158

What is the poverty cycle?

A model that shows why it is difficult for some LEDCs to develop without outside help

159

What are the stages of the poverty cycle?

Limited access to food and safe water -> hunger and poor sanitation -> disease, malnutrition and death -> depleted workforce -> economic decline -> low incomes

160

What does Rostow's Model show?

Stages of economic growth and development

161

What is an example of Rostow's traditional society?

Subsistence agriculture

162

What is an example of Rostow's preconditions to take off?

Mechanised and commercial agriculture, therefore a growth in productivity

163

What is an example of Rostow's take off?

Industrialisation

164

What is an example of Rostow's drive to maturity?

Early take off industries decline

165

What is an example of Rostow's mass consumption?

Growing investment in new technologies and infrastructure

166

On average the UK minimum wage is ..... times higher than in China.

14; however economic hubs have higher minimum wages (Shenzhen's minimum wage is the highest in the country)

167

How much money did Britain give to Malaysia to fund the construction of the Pergau River Dam, and what was the condition?

£234 million; Malaysia spent £1 billion on British arms

168

What did the UK send to Bangladesh as aid shortly after the 1998 floods?

Bridge materials to prevent people being stranded in future floods, wheat

169

What did the Disaster Forum send to Bangladesh as aid shortly after the 1998 floods?

Medicine, blankets, tents, boats to rescue the stranded; they also dug and repaired wells

170

Give an example of anti-globalisation in the UK.

Move towards "Made in Britain" products such as John Smedley clothing from Derbyshire, LUSH from Poole

171

How many migrants were detected at EU borders Jan-Aug 2015?

350,000; more than the whole of 2014 (280,000)

172

Where are most of the migrants in the current migrant crisis from?

Syria due to civil war; also Afghanistan, Eritrea, Nigeria, Kosovo

173

Why has policing migrants been difficult in Europe?

Passport free movement in Schengen zone

174

How many people have left Syria?

5 million; a further 6.5 million have been displaced within Syria

175

Which two EU countries took most Syrian refugees?

Germany and Sweden

176

How many Syrian refugees are there in Turkey?

Around 2 million

177

How big is the Tata steel production plant in Port Talbot, Wales?

Biggest in UK, one of biggest in Europe

178

How has the number of people employed at Port Talbot changed?

20,000 in 1980s, now just 3,800

179

How much does Tata add to the Welsh economy?

£1.6 billion

180

Why did Tata announce it was pulling out of the UK in March 2016?

Weak demand, supply from China, high energy costs

181

What were the environmental issues with the steel works at Port Talbot?

In the first 9 months of 2013, airborne dust particles exceeded EU limits on 14 days; linked to respiratory illness

182

How much of Nigeria's export revenue is from petroleum?

90%

183

How many people have died in Nigeria as a result of oil (contamination, conflict etc)?

53,000

184

What effect do oil spills have on Nigeria?

Reduced farming and fishing yields

185

How much of the oil money in Nigeria is taken by corrupt government officials?

70%

186

How is IKEA an environmentally friendly company?

Flat pack furniture, less than 1% of products transported by air, aim to transport 40% by rail, transportation companies must be environmentally friendly, model for sustainable forestry

187

How many countries does IKEA have suppliers in?

55

188

Where is IKEA's HQ?

Leiden, Netherlands (near Amsterdam)

189

Where is IKEA's design HQ?

Almhult, Sweden where the company was founded