Flashcards in Population And Resources Deck (83):
Define carrying capacity.
The number of people who can be adequately supported by the productive capacity of the land
Define demographic transition.
Historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population
What is the high fluctuating stage (1) of the demographic transition model?
Stable, high birth rate and fluctuating high death rate; slow population growth; pre-industry (Amazonia)
What is the early expanding stage (2) of the demographic transition model?
Improved healthcare; fewer deaths; high birth rate; peak population growth; better life expectancy and lower child mortality (Bangladesh, Bolivia)
What is the late expanding stage (3) of the demographic transition model?
Social norms change and birth rate decreases (Brazil, India)
What is the low fluctuating stage (4) of the demographic transition model?
Low birth and death rates; slow population growth (UK, South Korea)
What is the natural decrease stage (5) of the demographic transition model?
Birth rate falls below death rate; declining population (Germany, Japan)
Any aspect of the environment which can be used to meet human needs
The western states of the USA cover 60% of the country's land area but only have ........% of the population and .......% of the mean precipitation.
In the past what was the solution to the water issues in western USA?
Aqueducts taking water from areas of water surplus to shortage
In California how much of the state's runoff originates in the northern third?
How much of the demand for water in California is in the southern two thirds of the state?
What are the main two reasons for water demand in California?
Irrigation and sprawling urban areas
How much of the state's water is used for agriculture?
Over 80% despite accounting for less than 10% of the economy
Which states does the Colorado River flow through?
Colorado, Utah and Arizona; it then follows the Arizona-Nevada and Arizona-California borders before entering Mexico
What construction marked the beginning of artificial control of the Colorado?
The Hoover Dam
The Colorado River Compact promised ........ of water to be split between the Upper Basin, Lower Basin and Mexico.
20.35 trillion litres
What is the average annual discharge of the Ricer Colorado since 1930?
17.25 trillion litres
How many people does the Colorado sustain?
Why did Arizona need the Central Arizona Project?
Arizona was taking much less than its legal entitlement of water from the Colorado as it could not afford a water transfer system, however it was overdrawing from aquifer supplies and needed to support the cities of Phoenix and Tucson
What is the impact of CAP?
California now has to learn to live with their original entitlement of water from the Colorado when they have been taking more
How much of the Colorado's water is lost through leakage and evaporation?
Where could water be recycled to improve efficiency?
In industry and sewage
More efficient forms of irrigation (compared to open-ditch systems) include...
...sprinkler systems which are 10 times more efficient or drip irrigation which is 100 times more efficient
Why do farmers only pay 10% of the cost of the water they use for irrigation?
It is heavily subsidised by federal government
Since 1992 farmers in California have been allowed to...
... sell surplus water to the highest bidder
What did Santa Barbara invest in to help combat issues of water shortage?
What is the Clark-Fisher Model?
A model showing how employment in a country changes over time
Fish is the primary protein source for...
...1 billion people
How much of the world's fish stocks are classed as fully exploited, overexploited or in crisis?
Fish landings were ..... times higher in 1990 compared to 1950.
What form of fish production will account for 50% of the industry by 2030?
What is by-catch and give an example?
When fish other the target are caught and often thrown back into the sea; sea turtles are often caught by shrimp trawlers
Between 1990 and 1997 how much did supply and demand of fish increase?
Supply increased by 9% but demand increased by 37%
What is upwelling?
When cold, nutrient-rich water rises to the surface of the ocean, bringing the fish with it
Despite only 1% of the world's oceans experiencing upwelling, ......% of fish yields are from upwelling sites.
How many people are employed in the fishing industry?
What environmentalists are shrimp farms often blamed for?
Loss of mangrove forests; however shrimp farms only caused 10% of what has been lost and often it is replanted as a defence for the farm
One fish farm can output as much sewage as a...
What environmental issues are associated with the "blue revolution"?
Damage to the sea floor from trawlers, loss of genetic diversity of fish due to demand for ascertain species
How much mangrove/wetland has been cleared for shrimp farming?
Over 1 million hectares
How has flooding and pollution from shrimp farming affected people in India?
People in Puttupettai have to walk to collect water as their wells are contaminated and people have been forced to abandon coastal villages and move to slums in Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai
Why is aquaculture unsustainable?
Farms often have to close because they require a constant supply of clean water but also contaminate the local water supplies
Shrimp farming creates less than 2% of the world's seafood but accounts for ........... of all by-catch.
A third; 150,000 sea turtles are killed annually by shrimp trawlers
What was India's fertility rate in 2013?
2.3, a reduction of 0.6 from 2003
What is the replacement fertility rate?
How many of India's states are currently below replacement levels of fertility?
10 out of 20
What did India's population policy include?
Cash incentives for people willing to be sterilised, improved infrastructure for areas that met fertility targets, commissions for health workers
What is the literacy rate in Kerala?
94%, 92% for women
What is the Indian average for female literacy?
What can women in Kerala do that women elsewhere in India can't?
Inherit land, have a say in political matters and choose their own husband
When did Kerala achieve replace,net fertility levels?
1991, 20 years ahead of the target
Why did fertility rates in Kerala reduce so much?
India's family planning was highly successful on the back of its matriarchal society
Why does educating women lower birth rates?
Women have opportunities outside of child rearing, they understand more about contraceptives
Why might Australia be considered overpopulated?
The economy is highly reliant on agriculture despite being an MEDC, however there is very little good quality land for farming (most of it is marginal with thin soils and little water)
What is Australia's current population and what is it expected to be in 2050?
Australia's current population is around 23.5 million and is expected to reach 30 million by 2050
In what way is Amazonia underpopulated?
The amount of resources in the area could support more people and provide a higher quality of life; people can be considered a scarce resource in this case
What do many Keralan girls go on to study at university?
Medicine, often outnumbering boys in their lectures
Why did China introduce its one child policy?
Population was growing far too rapidly, between 1949 and 1990 it had more than doubled from 550 million to 1.13 billion
China's later, longer, fewer campaign led to reductions in fertility rates from 5.8 in the 1960s to...
...2.9 by 1979
How government get people to agree to the one child policy?
They offered cash bonuses, better housing, free medical care and improved welfare and educational services for the child
Why was there opposition from rural families to the one child policy?
Farming families tended to have more children as they needed workers for their farms; they also wanted at least one boy to carry on the game ily name and support them in retirement
Why did population growth not slow to the expected rate under the one child policy?
Some farmers were willing to pay fines for a larger family and others didn't register births
What caused the population growth in China to suddenly fall below replacement levels?
Forced abortions and sterilisation, socio-economic change and increased affluence, urbanisation and modernisation
What issues has the one child policy caused?
Gender gap, ageing population, shrinking workforce, millions of unregistered people
What issues are associated with the rural-urban migration in China?
Migrant workers fuelled the economic growth of China, however they are not entitled to use services in cities
When was the one child policy scrapped?
How has population growth in Mauritius affected the environment?
First cover is now just 2% and over 100 plant and animal species have become extinct
What did Mauritius do in 1972 to support its family planning initiatives?
Made contraception free of charge
How did Mauritius adapt its economy to require less workers?
It diversified into high value textiles and services; Mauritius' young people are known for being well-educated, bilingual and innovative
What were the aims of family planning in Mauritius?
Improved status of women, later marriages, better healthcare
In which country did deaths first outnumber births in 2015?
Spain; although the population was already decreasing due to net emigration as a response to recession and high unemployment
In order to retain fish stocks, the numbers of target fish should not...
....exceed the natural growth in number of that species
Why may community management schemes help to retain fish stocks?
Fishermen will fish more sustainably as they would otherwise be putting the future of their own community at risk
How could fishing fleets be reduced?
Decommissioning, reduced subsidies (as fishing is a loss making industry but subsidies make up the difference), limiting licenses
What are some other methods of encouraging sustainable fishing?
Harvest taxes, bans in breeding season, quotas
Aquaculture was considered a solution to depleting marine sources, why might this not be the case?
Demand is often for top predators such as tuna and swordfish, so more fish have to be caught in order to feed them
What is the EU Common Fisheries Policy?
A policy covering subsidies, total allowable catches, conservation and recovery, reducing fleet capacity, sustainable aquaculture development and more
How many people in Senegal and The Gambia depend on fishing for their livelihood?
Define food poor in terms of The Gambia?
15% of population can't afford adequate food for the year
How much of the Gambia's fish yields are currently exploited?
30,000 of 80,000 tonnes pa
How are boats from other countries treated in The Gambia?
They have to register for a license and la d some of their fish in the capital city, Banjul