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Flashcards in Population And Resources Deck (83):
1

Define carrying capacity.

The number of people who can be adequately supported by the productive capacity of the land

2

Define demographic transition.

Historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population

3

What is the high fluctuating stage (1) of the demographic transition model?

Stable, high birth rate and fluctuating high death rate; slow population growth; pre-industry (Amazonia)

4

What is the early expanding stage (2) of the demographic transition model?

Improved healthcare; fewer deaths; high birth rate; peak population growth; better life expectancy and lower child mortality (Bangladesh, Bolivia)

5

What is the late expanding stage (3) of the demographic transition model?

Social norms change and birth rate decreases (Brazil, India)

6

What is the low fluctuating stage (4) of the demographic transition model?

Low birth and death rates; slow population growth (UK, South Korea)

7

What is the natural decrease stage (5) of the demographic transition model?

Birth rate falls below death rate; declining population (Germany, Japan)

8

Define resource.

Any aspect of the environment which can be used to meet human needs

9

The western states of the USA cover 60% of the country's land area but only have ........% of the population and .......% of the mean precipitation.

40, 25

10

In the past what was the solution to the water issues in western USA?

Aqueducts taking water from areas of water surplus to shortage

11

In California how much of the state's runoff originates in the northern third?

70%

12

How much of the demand for water in California is in the southern two thirds of the state?

80%

13

What are the main two reasons for water demand in California?

Irrigation and sprawling urban areas

14

How much of the state's water is used for agriculture?

Over 80% despite accounting for less than 10% of the economy

15

Which states does the Colorado River flow through?

Colorado, Utah and Arizona; it then follows the Arizona-Nevada and Arizona-California borders before entering Mexico

16

What construction marked the beginning of artificial control of the Colorado?

The Hoover Dam

17

The Colorado River Compact promised ........ of water to be split between the Upper Basin, Lower Basin and Mexico.

20.35 trillion litres

18

What is the average annual discharge of the Ricer Colorado since 1930?

17.25 trillion litres

19

How many people does the Colorado sustain?

25 million

20

Why did Arizona need the Central Arizona Project?

Arizona was taking much less than its legal entitlement of water from the Colorado as it could not afford a water transfer system, however it was overdrawing from aquifer supplies and needed to support the cities of Phoenix and Tucson

21

What is the impact of CAP?

California now has to learn to live with their original entitlement of water from the Colorado when they have been taking more

22

How much of the Colorado's water is lost through leakage and evaporation?

25%

23

Where could water be recycled to improve efficiency?

In industry and sewage

24

More efficient forms of irrigation (compared to open-ditch systems) include...

...sprinkler systems which are 10 times more efficient or drip irrigation which is 100 times more efficient

25

Why do farmers only pay 10% of the cost of the water they use for irrigation?

It is heavily subsidised by federal government

26

Since 1992 farmers in California have been allowed to...

... sell surplus water to the highest bidder

27

What did Santa Barbara invest in to help combat issues of water shortage?

Desalination plant

28

What is the Clark-Fisher Model?

A model showing how employment in a country changes over time

29

Fish is the primary protein source for...

...1 billion people

30

How much of the world's fish stocks are classed as fully exploited, overexploited or in crisis?

75%

31

Fish landings were ..... times higher in 1990 compared to 1950.

5

32

What form of fish production will account for 50% of the industry by 2030?

Aquaculture

33

What is by-catch and give an example?

When fish other the target are caught and often thrown back into the sea; sea turtles are often caught by shrimp trawlers

34

Between 1990 and 1997 how much did supply and demand of fish increase?

Supply increased by 9% but demand increased by 37%

35

What is upwelling?

When cold, nutrient-rich water rises to the surface of the ocean, bringing the fish with it

36

Despite only 1% of the world's oceans experiencing upwelling, ......% of fish yields are from upwelling sites.

50

37

How many people are employed in the fishing industry?

200 million

38

What environmentalists are shrimp farms often blamed for?

Loss of mangrove forests; however shrimp farms only caused 10% of what has been lost and often it is replanted as a defence for the farm

39

One fish farm can output as much sewage as a...

...small city

40

What environmental issues are associated with the "blue revolution"?

Damage to the sea floor from trawlers, loss of genetic diversity of fish due to demand for ascertain species

41

How much mangrove/wetland has been cleared for shrimp farming?

Over 1 million hectares

42

How has flooding and pollution from shrimp farming affected people in India?

People in Puttupettai have to walk to collect water as their wells are contaminated and people have been forced to abandon coastal villages and move to slums in Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai

43

Why is aquaculture unsustainable?

Farms often have to close because they require a constant supply of clean water but also contaminate the local water supplies

44

Shrimp farming creates less than 2% of the world's seafood but accounts for ........... of all by-catch.

A third; 150,000 sea turtles are killed annually by shrimp trawlers

45

What was India's fertility rate in 2013?

2.3, a reduction of 0.6 from 2003

46

What is the replacement fertility rate?

2.1

47

How many of India's states are currently below replacement levels of fertility?

10 out of 20

48

What did India's population policy include?

Cash incentives for people willing to be sterilised, improved infrastructure for areas that met fertility targets, commissions for health workers

49

What is the literacy rate in Kerala?

94%, 92% for women

50

What is the Indian average for female literacy?

65%

51

What can women in Kerala do that women elsewhere in India can't?

Inherit land, have a say in political matters and choose their own husband

52

When did Kerala achieve replace,net fertility levels?

1991, 20 years ahead of the target

53

Why did fertility rates in Kerala reduce so much?

India's family planning was highly successful on the back of its matriarchal society

54

Why does educating women lower birth rates?

Women have opportunities outside of child rearing, they understand more about contraceptives

55

Why might Australia be considered overpopulated?

The economy is highly reliant on agriculture despite being an MEDC, however there is very little good quality land for farming (most of it is marginal with thin soils and little water)

56

What is Australia's current population and what is it expected to be in 2050?

Australia's current population is around 23.5 million and is expected to reach 30 million by 2050

57

In what way is Amazonia underpopulated?

The amount of resources in the area could support more people and provide a higher quality of life; people can be considered a scarce resource in this case

58

What do many Keralan girls go on to study at university?

Medicine, often outnumbering boys in their lectures

59

Why did China introduce its one child policy?

Population was growing far too rapidly, between 1949 and 1990 it had more than doubled from 550 million to 1.13 billion

60

China's later, longer, fewer campaign led to reductions in fertility rates from 5.8 in the 1960s to...

...2.9 by 1979

61

How government get people to agree to the one child policy?

They offered cash bonuses, better housing, free medical care and improved welfare and educational services for the child

62

Why was there opposition from rural families to the one child policy?

Farming families tended to have more children as they needed workers for their farms; they also wanted at least one boy to carry on the game ily name and support them in retirement

63

Why did population growth not slow to the expected rate under the one child policy?

Some farmers were willing to pay fines for a larger family and others didn't register births

64

What caused the population growth in China to suddenly fall below replacement levels?

Forced abortions and sterilisation, socio-economic change and increased affluence, urbanisation and modernisation

65

What issues has the one child policy caused?

Gender gap, ageing population, shrinking workforce, millions of unregistered people

66

What issues are associated with the rural-urban migration in China?

Migrant workers fuelled the economic growth of China, however they are not entitled to use services in cities

67

When was the one child policy scrapped?

2015

68

How has population growth in Mauritius affected the environment?

First cover is now just 2% and over 100 plant and animal species have become extinct

69

What did Mauritius do in 1972 to support its family planning initiatives?

Made contraception free of charge

70

How did Mauritius adapt its economy to require less workers?

It diversified into high value textiles and services; Mauritius' young people are known for being well-educated, bilingual and innovative

71

What were the aims of family planning in Mauritius?

Improved status of women, later marriages, better healthcare

72

In which country did deaths first outnumber births in 2015?

Spain; although the population was already decreasing due to net emigration as a response to recession and high unemployment

73

In order to retain fish stocks, the numbers of target fish should not...

....exceed the natural growth in number of that species

74

Why may community management schemes help to retain fish stocks?

Fishermen will fish more sustainably as they would otherwise be putting the future of their own community at risk

75

How could fishing fleets be reduced?

Decommissioning, reduced subsidies (as fishing is a loss making industry but subsidies make up the difference), limiting licenses

76

What are some other methods of encouraging sustainable fishing?

Harvest taxes, bans in breeding season, quotas

77

Aquaculture was considered a solution to depleting marine sources, why might this not be the case?

Demand is often for top predators such as tuna and swordfish, so more fish have to be caught in order to feed them

78

What is the EU Common Fisheries Policy?

A policy covering subsidies, total allowable catches, conservation and recovery, reducing fleet capacity, sustainable aquaculture development and more

79

How many people in Senegal and The Gambia depend on fishing for their livelihood?

216,000

80

Define food poor in terms of The Gambia?

15% of population can't afford adequate food for the year

81

How much of the Gambia's fish yields are currently exploited?

30,000 of 80,000 tonnes pa

82

How are boats from other countries treated in The Gambia?

They have to register for a license and la d some of their fish in the capital city, Banjul

83

What did the Eu fund in Gunjur?

Fish smoking buildings as this adds value over fresh fish, terms of trade