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Definition of globalisation

The widening and deepening of global connections and interdependence through flows of commodities, capital, info,migrants and tourists


What were the three waves of globalisation when the global population and GDP shot up?

Steam ships
Jet aircraft's after ww2
Electronic communications


How has trade grown?

Exponentially since 1970


How has international internet bandwidth grown?

Exponentially since 2006
Roughly the global flow of information in 2020 will b e 25x what it was in 2010


How has international internet bandwidth grown?

Exponentially since 2006
Roughly the global flow of information in 2020 will b e 25x what it was in 2010


How has direct foreign investment changed?

Most steadily rising in developing economies although there is much just as much in developed countries , the amount just fluctuates more


How have migration rates changed?

Number of migrants to Asia has been growing fast from 2007
Most migrants go to europe, Asia, and north america, but flows to every destination are steadily increasing


What is space-time compression and the shrinking world?

The time taken to travel to places around the world has fallen from a maximum of 40 days to a maximum of over 1.5days


How did steamships accelerate globalisation?

From 1830 to 1955 the time taken to get from Liverpool to New York shrunk from 17days to 3.5days


How did railways accelerate globalisation?

In 1830 there were only a couple of railway lines around NYC
By 1912 there was a dense network around the whole country


How did telegraphs accelerate globalisation?

The worlds first telegraph message was received in London from Paris in 1851
They were real time messages by putting copper wires down on the ocean floor when before it would have taken 72 days to get a letter to sydney


How did the transatlantic telephone service accelerate globalisation?

It started in 1927
Initial capacity was one call at a time at $75 per 3mins
But by 1956 36 calls could be made at once at $12per 3mins


How have unlimited free calls accelerated globalisation?

Internet use has grown from nothing in the mid 80s to now having about 4billion users
Users trebled before from 2006-2016
Capacity became huge and prices tiny when the sipper wore was changed into fibre glass


What are SEZs?

Special Economic Zones
It encourages FDI
It means less tax, tariffs, quotas, and customs, and labor regulations


What are examples of SEZs?

Shantou, Shenzen, Xiamen, and Zhuhai in China


What is ASEAN?

the Association of South East Asian Nations


What are the aims of ASEAN?

1) To accelerate economic, social and cultural progress through equality and partnership
2) Peace and stability through law and the UN charter
3) Assistance through training and research facilities
4) Promote Southeast Asian studies
5) Collaboration to improve agriculture, industry, trade, transport, communication and living standards


What has ASEAN achieved?

A major partner of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
In 1992, members reduced intraregional tariffs eased restrictions on foreign investment by creating the ASEAN free Trade Area
Adopted a declaration to resolve disputes in South China Sea, established the ASEAN regional forum, and worked to resolve conflict in East Timor


What are the strengths of ASEAN?

peace maintained
Different branches easy to manage as they require little political and diplomatic involvement
Has kept expanding its numbers, keeping it relevant, especially to major powers


What are ways of measuring globalisation?

broadband availability
international flights
members of IGOs
variety of places of worship
social media
exports and imports (% of GDP)
diet variety


What are the weaknesses of ASEAN?

Major powers can threaten or favourite smaller countries within ASEAN
Still mistrust and suspicion between countries with unrestful histories


What is KOF?

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


What economic factors do KOF use to measure globalisation?

levels of cross-border trade and investment
restrictions on trade


What political factors do KOF use to measure globalisation?

No. of foreign embassies
No. of IGOs
No. of UN peace missions


What social factors do KOF use to measure globalisation?

Telephone calls, letters, and tourist flows
Access to the internet, TV, and foreign press
No. of McDonald's and Ikea branches


What has KOF found about globalisation?

it has roughly doubled in the last 30 years


What are the most globalised countries according to KOF?

Netherlands, Ireland, Belgium


What are the least globalised countries according to KOF?

Solomon Islands, Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea


What are the economic factors AT Kearney use to measure globalisation?

International trade


What are the technological factors AT Kearney use to measure globalisation?

internet servers
internet users


What are the political factors AT Kearney use to measure globalisation?



What are the personal factors AT Kearney use to measure globalisation?

telephone traffic
remittances (sending money back to another country)


According to AT Kearney, which countries are the most globalised?

Singapore, Ireland, Switzerland, USA


What are the physical factors that cause Singapore to be switched on?

natural harbor
access to Asian trade
Close to China and the Asian tigers
at the mouth of the Malacca Strait, through which 40% of maritime trade passes


What are the political factors that cause Singapore to be switched on?

small government
was a British colony- English speakers
Simple legislation to avoid contradiction
quick decision making


What are the economic factors that cause Singapore to be switched on?

no "red tape" (business rules)
low tax and tariffs
joined trade blocs


What are factors not helping Singapore to be switched on?

harsh judgements
tame press
illegal to be gay
protests rarely allowed


What are the physical factors that cause the Sahel to be switched off?

remote and arid with locusts
rainfall decreased after 1970- severe drought
big and empty to limited transport options
population increased


What are the political factors that cause the Sahel to be switched off?

influx of modern heavy weapons from Libya
Boko Haran ("Western ways are sacrilege")
18 Europeans kidnapped 2012
Badly patrolled border with Algeria- lack of security
loads of refugees


What are the economic factors that cause the Sahel to be switched off?

limited infrastructure
Biggest business in the Sahel is smuggling
Small national armies and no security
TNCs don't want to invest


In what sense is Coca-Cola a global company?

It can be bought everywhere except Cuba and North Korea
It's made in every continent but Oceania


What is outsourcing?

Reducing costs by moving work outside suppliers


How does Coke outsource?

they license independent bottlers
they buy ingredients from big producers


What is offshoring?

Relocating a business to another country


How does Coke offshore?

It keeps about $10billion of its $13billion in cash overseas (2011)
$3billion in Brazil where interest rates are higher


What is Global shift?

the movement of economic activity around the world as a result of globalisation


What is Thomas Friedman's attitude to globalisation?

Globalisation is making the world a level playing field, where everyone has equal opportunity, so geography is dead


What is Vandana Shiva's attitude to globalisation?

Globalisation has unintended social and ecological effects. It leads to brutal exploitation. Besides, diversity is beautiful


How has the world become more unequal?

in 1807, the life expectancy range was 15years, and income range was $2,000
In 2018, the life expectancy range is 25years, and the income range >$60,000


What is Guangdong?

A Southern Chinese province


How has the population of Gunagdong changed?

growing lineally since 1950
the rate of growth increased increased in about 1990
Overall trebled since 1950


How has the GDP of Guangdong changed?

Was almost nothing in 1985, but is now over 8,000 billion yuan
almost exponential growth
growing 8-18% annually since 1990
has the same GDP as the Netherlands


What opportunities are there in Guangdong?

45 universities
60,000 yuan is the average wage


What urban growth is there in Guangdong?

Shenzen has grown 6000% since 1985
the area of farmland in the province has dropped 35% since 2000


What environmental problems have arisen in Guangdong?

In 2013, 44% of rice samples had poisonous levels of cadmium
air pollution at unsafe levels
a PH of 1 was recorded by Greenpeace in the Pearl River at Fogang


how many workers do iphone manufacturing in China?

In 2009 there was about 99milion factory workers


What major iphone manufacturing plant is in Shenzen?

Foxconn's Langhua plant where 450,000 work- overall as many people are employed by Foxconn as live in Estonia


What suicides were there in the Langhua manufacturing plant?

In 2010, there were 18 attempted suicides and 14 confirmed deaths
20 more were talked down


How long do most employees last at the Langhua last?

only a year


What are the working conditions like at the Langhua plant like?

12hr shifts
unfair fines
promises of free housing only to have huge water and electricity costs
unkempt promises of benefits
bosses who humiliate workers in front of everyone for small mistakes
meant to be 8 people per dorm, but was 12


How has the car industry in Detroit changed?

it was booming in 1942, but has now collapsed
Factories abandoned in 1988


How has the population in Detroit changed?

1,850,000 in 1950
677,116 in 2015


What is the dereliction like in Detroit?

at least 70,000 abandoned buildings
31,000 empty houses- over half of residents left
the mayor planned to bulldoze a quarter of the city in order to be able to provide services in concentrated areas


When did Detroit declare bankruptcy?

July 18th 2013
the city is in huge debt to Wall Street banks


What percentage of Detroit is unemployed and economically inactive?

17% unemployed
29% economically inactive


What have the impacts of crime been in Detroit?

life expectancy lowered by 30% due to rising gun crime
drug-related crime formed the basis of the informal economy
In 2012, the murder rate topped the 1970s even though Detroit was dubbed the "murder capital" of the US in 1974


What has happened to Detroit house prices?

Major fall in house prices
some sold for s dollar in some districts


What was "white flight" in Detroit?

Industries moved to the suburbs, followed by veterans in ww1 and their middle class families who wanted to be close to work and in a good neighbourhood. This was fuelled by the 1967 race riots.


How did the circle of deprivation effect Detroit?

GM motors and Ford cut jobs and shut down plants resulting in a lower employment rate so less taxes, services, and public spending. local govs cut taxes so less investment and population decreased


What happened in Detroit in 1943?

there was an oil crises which lead to drivers buying vehicles with better fuel economy than the gas guzzlers made in Detroit
Honda and Nissan (Asian companies) had more desirable models


Why was the Detroit vulnerable?

It only had the car industry so was vulnerable to economic change within it
They didn't react quick enough to the competition from Germany and Japan after their economies had recovered from ww1


Why is there a manly poor black population in Detroit?

They were banned from the suburbs by segregation at first and many moved to the city to escape the kkk + abuse in the South. When the civil rights movement allowed black presence in the suburbs the black middle class moved there, leaving a poor black population in the city.


How many migrants were there globally in 2013?

750million internal migrants in cities
250million international migrants


How much forced displacement was there globally in 2014

the most since ww2


How many people are displaced globally now?



How many people will live in cities by 2050?



What are the causes of rural-urban migration?

push and pull factors
"shrinking world" technology (informing people of potential opportunities and improved transport)


What is centripetal migration?

movement of people directed towards the centre of urban areas (eg. dumps in Lagos, cemeteries in Cairo, or steep hills in Rio)


What creates global hubs?

elite international migrants
Low-waged international migrants (30% of the UAE is Indians)
internal migration (NEEs + LICs)
where parent companies of major TNCs have established subsidiary firms or allianced with local companies


What are the benefits of migration on the host countries?

fills skills shortages (Indian doctors arriving in the UK in the 1950s)
economic migrants willing to do labor locals won't (poles on Peterborough farms)
migrants pay taxes and rent
some set up businesses that employ locals (in 2013, 14% of UK businesses start-ups were migrant owned)


What are the benefits of migration on the source region?

remittances contribute to national earnings (25% of Nepal's in 2014)
less public spending needed on housing and health
migrants or their kids may return with new skills (British Asians start restaurants and health clubs in India)


what are the costs of migration on the host region?

social tension (UKIP)
Political parties change their policies (pledges to reduce migration)
shortages of places at local primary schools- migrants' natural increase
new markets develop for ethnic food- visible change


What are the costs of migration on the source region?

economic loss of a generation, schooled at gov. expense
reduced economic growth as consumption falls
increased proportion of aged dependants
closure of uni courses due to lack of students
closure of urban services and entertainment aimed at young adults (nightclubs closed in Warsaw in 2004)


Example of interdependence

When building projects were cancelled in the UK in 2009 due to economic crises, Estonia's economy shrank by 13%


What is westernisation?

culture spreading from the West and influencing other parts of the world (mainly started with colonialism)


What does cultural diffusion and global culture come from?

global media


what is americanisation?

similar to westernisation- alot due to the dominance of TNCs


what is cultural imperialism?

getting dominance over other countries by spreading culture and ideas, forcing other to adopt them


What is an example of soft power?

£280million a year to the BBC world service from the government- 11 languages- giving an alternative viewpoints to isolated areas, but is also the direct voice of the UK government


what is soft power?

westernisation+ americanisation+ cultural imperialism
spreading your culture over other areas without force


Where were the top 50 global brands from in 2015?

the top 5 were American
24 overall were American
10 were European
3 were Japanese


What are the cultural benefits of globalisation?

global standards regulate extreme local standards (global campaign started in 2017 to end FGM)
more positive view of disability globally (more emphasis on the paralympics in 2012 but in 2018, people were banned from climbing Everest if they had no legs)


How much meat does China now eat?

a quarter
Rose from 10million tonnes in 1980, to 70million tonnes in 2010
overtook the USA in 1990


How many people are obese in China?

5x what it was in 2002


How many people are diabetic in China?

in 2010, 9.7% of the population were diabetic


Why have diets in China changed?

Exposure to western diets
in Europe and America, obesity correlates with poverty, but in Asia, it is the urban middle class- the drive for children's academic achievement leaves them no time for exercise.


How have chocolate sales changed in China?

2000-2006 chocolate sales quadrupled


How many languages are in danger of being lost?

in 2013, 577 Critically Endangered Languages (UNESCO)
people feel a loss of cultural identity


How is global population and GDP growing?

global GDP is rising faster than population growing- spike since early 1950s


Which country has the top HDI



What country has the lowest HDI



What is the GII

The gender inequality index


What are the best and worst countries for GII?

USA= less than 0.14 difference
Yemen= 0.68-0.77 difference


Where is the male:female labor rates ratio particularly bad?

1:0.6 labor participation rate


How do you work out the Gini coefficient?



How has the global GINI trend changed?

spiking since roughly 1980
4.6 in 1982-0.54 in 2000
no. of countries with extreme GINI levels also increasing


Which area is the most unequal

South America


Why has the GINI coefficient spiked?

Reagan and Thatcher's neo-liberalism and the collapse of the USSR
Leading to mass migration and political extremes


What are the effects of globalisation on the environment?

increased travel
resource extraction
intensive agriculture
waste disposal


What are the effects of globalisation on wildlife?

60% of animals wiped out since 1970 (the Guardian 2018)
especially South- East Asia
North Pacific especially for marine species


What is an example of a hard border?

Cueta and Melilla- Spanish enclave in Morocco


What is an example of a soft border?

Belgium and the Netherlands


What did Umberto Bossi say about migrants?

The boats should be shot out the water
"I want to hear the sound of cannons by the morning"


Who was Jean- Claude Junckerand what did he say about migrants?

he was the head of the EU in 2016
said borders were "the worst invention ever"


How much of the most recent vote did the Austria Freedom Party get?



How much of the most recent vote did the Swiss People's party get?



What happened to the Rana Plaza?

it was a textile factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh that collapsed on 24 April 2013
the search for dead ended on May 13, at a death toll of 1,130


What is localism?

Localism supports local production and consumption of goods, local control of government, and promotion of local history, local culture, and local identity


What is your ecological footprint?

How much of the world's resources you use


What is the global average ecological footprint?

1.7 hectares of space of resources per person


What is the UK average ecological footprint?

5.1-6.7 hectares of space of resources per person


What are transition towns?

bottom up, community led projects to transition to a low carbon future by taking responsibility and empowering the community


How do transition towns source local food?

local allotments, garden share, contracts with local farmers


How do transition towns organise local money?

local currencies- for example the Totness pound


How do transition towns source energy locally?

local led energy companies providing renewable energy for the community


How do transition towns organise local transport?

car clubs, enabling people to cycle more


What is ethical shopping?

buying local reduces carbon footprint and food miles


What are the drawbacks of ethical shopping?

small local farms aren't as efficient
seasonal- if buying out of season they have probably been grown using lots of carbon


What is the zero waste town in japan called?



How much is recycled in Kamikatsu?

80% of waste reycled, reused, or composted
They separate their waste into 34 different categories


When was the Kamikatsu zero waste program started?



What are some of the things kamikatsu do to stay zero waste?

Signs on bins show what the waste will be recycled into, and the cost+profit to the community
local factory turns discarded items into clothing+teddy bears- coat made out of fish flags
shop where you can bring items and take items for free


What are the limitations of the zero waste Kamikatsu scheme?

very small town
very time consuming


What is the "Keep Britain tidy" scheme?

painted art on the pavenment- images of fish, so as people litter it goes directly onto the fish and people see the art degrade as litter makes real fish degrade


What are the limitations of the "Keep Britain Tidy" scheme?

it is 44% government funded


How much did Mexicans in other countries send home in remittances in 2017?

between Jan and Nov 2017 mexicans sent home $26.1 billion


what is an example in the UK of an area associated with ethnic food outlets

the "curry mile" in Rusholme, Manchester


how many Nigerians are demanding action from Shell to clean up oil spills through their lawyers?



what are threats to Nigerian people and the environment due to oil spills?

water is contaminated with cancer causing compounds such as benzene and oil. Spills have destroyed the lives of thousands of fishermen and farmers


What is an example of a TNC that harms the environment due to intensive agriculture?

Bayer and Syngenta manufacture Neonicotinoids which have been shown to damage bees


How have TNC's Bayer and Syngenta's Neonicotinoids damaged the environment?

around 90% of plants need insects to pollinate and 3/4 of flying insects in nature reserves across Germany have vanished in the last 25 years


Which TNCs havee harmed the environment and people due to over water use?

pepsi and coca cola


How much water is needed to make one small bottle of Coca-Cola?

1.9 litres+ the water from making the needed sugarcane, which makes 400 litres.


what are coca-cola the number one buyer of in india?



How much employment do coke and pepsi provide in Tamil Nadu due to their sugar cane needs?

2,000 families in Tamil Nadu and more than 5,000 families indirectly


What TNCs harm people and the environment due to water and air pollution

Shell, Nestle and Motorola


What regulations have Shell, Motorola and Nestle violated?

among 18 other corporations, 10 of which are Chinese, Shell, Motorola and Nestle have violated state regulations obliging them to announce that the pollution they emitted exceeded permitted levels


how many local governments have responded to public requests for pollution caused by companies

3 out of 113


what is an example of a project of mass transport damaging the environment?

the Polish Government is facing allegations in the European Court Justice for commissioning the Via Baltica by-pass project which failed to protect wildlife habitats in an EU Special Protection Area


What did Trafigura, an oiling trading company, do illegally?

In 2006, Trafigura illegally transported toxic waste. They tried to have the waste treated in Amsterdam, but finding it too expensive, shipped it to Abidjan in the Ivory Coast


What were the impacts of Trafigura's illegal transportation of toxic waste to the Ivory Coast?

The waste was treated very cheaply and thousands of people have alleged to being injured from the waste as it was spread across dumps in Abidjan


What did Trafigura have to pay for its illegal transportation of toxic waste to the Ivory Coast?

in 2007 Trafigura payed $160m to the Ivory Coast gov without admitting liability
it payed $50m to individual who said they had been injured
the captain of the ship carrying the waste has been sentenced to 5 years


how many KFCs were there in China?

600 by 2016


how many restaurants do McDonalds plan to build in China?

1000 in the next 5 years


which country in the world has the largest overweight population?



What percentage of China is overweight?

11% of men and 15% of women in a nation of 1.4 billion people


What percentage of carbon emissions has been emitted by the top 90 emitting companies?

63% of the cumulative global emissions of industrial carbon dioxide and methane between 1751 and 2010- 914 gigatonne CO2 emissions


What type of companies make up the top emitting companies of CO2 and Methane of all time?

seven were cement manufacturers and the rest were energy companies producing oil, gas and coal


what companies produced more greenhouse gas emissions than any other entity ever?

government-run oil and coal companies in the Soviet Union- they produced just under 8.9% of the total produced over all time


how much of total greenhouse gas emissions ever have Chinese gov-run companies emitted?



The habitat of which animal would be damaged by the Jumbo Valley development?



What percentage of the Kootenays were against the Jumbo Valley development?

90% against it in 2004


What are the locals in Jumbo Valley called?

the Kootenays


Why are the First Nations against the Jumbo Valley development?

sacred sites destroyed/ built over
"our no should be heard"


What do the Canadian government think about the Jumbo Valley development?

they think that it is a way of generating revenue


What do off pieste skiers think of the Jumbo Valley development?

they want to protect the valley


How did the Ktunaxa nation try to combat the Jumbo Valley development?

they said their case in the Supreme Court of Canada in December 2016 but the ruling said that the legal system doesn't recognise and protect the sacred nature of land


who are the First Nations in Jumbo Valley?

The Ktunaxa Nation


What habitat will the Jumbo Valley development destroy?

it would fragment a critical section of a green corridor, leading to reduced grizzly bear populations on the continent


What has International conservation organisation has named Jumbo Valley a priority area?

Yellowstone to Yukon


What are the current bear levels in Jumbo Valley?

they are at 54% capacity- 50% is legally considered threatened


Why would the jobs created by the Jumbo Valley development possibly not benefit the locals?

the new jobs would be filled by immigrants in the ski industry and so bring cost and strain on the local community


Why does the addition of the Jumbo Valley development seem unnecessary in the area?

they are already 8 ski resorts within 4 hours of Invermere- none of them are operating at capacity so another resort would be stealing visitors from them


How expensive would it be to build and maintain roads to the Jumbo Valley development?

the road would cost $70 million in total plus maintenance costs of $10,000/km


how much land would the Jumbo Valley development take over?

it would convert 6,000+ hectares of public land into a private resort


What opposition has the Jumbo Valley project received due to global warming?

the Sinixt and Ktunaxa Nations have registered opposition due to global warming as the glaciers are retreating and are predicted to have entirely melted within 40 years


How long would construction take for the Jumbo Valley development and how much would it cost?

some $15-20 million a year for 20 years


Why would skiing in Jumbo Valley be dangerous if the development were to go forward?

there are not any other ski resorts with such high risks of avalanches at the base site and access roads


how many beds would the Jumbo Valley development have?

5,500 tourist beds and 750 staff beds


how many visitors could the Jumbo Valley resort cater to when completed?

up 3,000 visitors a day


What would the Jumbo Valley resort provide easy access to?

the valley provides the easiest access to 3,000 metre high glaciers in North America


What is the climate like in Jumbo Valley?

consistently huge annual snowfalls in a dry region with lots of sunny days- ideal for skiing


What will the Jumbo Valley resort be able to supply for snow-sports athletes?

North America's only permanent summer training area


How will be the views of Jumbo Valley be made accessible for everyone?

by a gondola so even the physically disabled will be able to see the natural beauty of the valley


Of which First Nation does the Jumbo Valley development project have the support?

locally based Kinbasket-Shuswap First Nation


How will the Jumbo Valley resort ensure that locals benefit from the project?

they will have an equity employment plan emphasising the local people and First Nations


How much are visitors expected to spend annually in local communities near the Jumbo Valley resort?

direct spending by visitors in the nearby communities is expected to reach $4m annually after 3 years of operation


How much tax for the government is expected to be generated by the Jumbo Valley resort?

exceed $12m annually


how many jobs is the Jumbo Valley resort expected to create?

750-800 full time jobs on completion


What has the Jumbo Valley development project been approved by?

the Environmental Assessment Act of the Province of B.C


what is the proposed developer of Jumbo Valley the only beneficiary of?

over $200,000 of taxpayer money that goes to the municipality which includes Jumbo Valley (created in 2012) even though it has no residents


who donated their time, jerseys, hats and hockey sticks to protesting the Jumbo valley developed project?

Scott and Rick Niedermayer support the "Keep Jumbo Wild" campaign


What proportion of the responses to the Environmental Assessment Office's call for input on the Jumbo Valley development were against it?

91% of 5,839 individual responses


what are two examples of organisations that have oppose the Jumbo valley development project?

The Sierra Club and the David Suzuki foundation


What are two examples of places that support the Jumbo Valley development project?

the Village of Radium and nearby Panorama Mountain Resort


How much content did China block in its censorship crackdown?

the content on 4,000 sites has been blocked for spreading "improper values, vulgarity or obscenity"


What does censorship in China achieve?

it limits the population's access to foreign media and influence


How did Chinese authorities retaliate against foreign journalists and news organisations for critical reporting?

by threatening visa denials


what is one example of Chinese authorities retaliating against a foreign journalist?

New York Times journalist Austin Ramzy was forced to leave the country after China refused to issue him a visa


What has risen in China as an alternative source of news and public opinion?

domestic microblogging and private chat services have grown since 2010


What are two examples of microblogging platforms in China?

Sina Weibo and Tencent's WeChat


How many journalists are imprisoned in China?

According to the Committee Protect Journalists, at least 44 journalists and online writers are in prison in China in Dec 2014 which was more than the previous year and the most in the world


Why did the UK government get rid of Tier 3 migration?

tier 3 was intended to be a pathway for unskilled migrants, but the government decided that there was no need for further unskilled immigration from outside the EU- stopping the cost of supporting them to the state


what affects an immigrant's granting of entry into the UK?

Eng lang ability, capacity to support oneself financially, and age and previous experience


How does Australia decide which immigrants are allowed to settle in the country?

the government decided in 1972 to admit migrants based on their ability to contribute to Australian society


What is Australia's character test for potential immigrants supposed to do?

eliminate anyone with a "substantial criminal record" or who is deemed a risk to the community


In Canada, how do they prevent areas from dying out?

immigrants applying for entrance to the country get extra weighting on their application for going to a particular area, such as Nova Scotia


How are numbers of immigrants with "exceptional talent" limited in entering the UK?

Immigrants who are deemed to be world leaders in their fields are capped at 1000 a year


what is trade protectionism?

trade protect is the deliberate attempt to limit imports or promote exports by putting up barriers to trade, therefore limiting globalisation through reduced flows of goods between countries


What is an example of China's attitude towards the USA and the USA's trade war?

the manager of Hebei Huayang Steel Pipe (one of the largest steel pipe producers in Bejing) said that "we will show them our power!" he thought hat a trade war would hurt the USA more than it would hurt China


What has Trump introduced to prevent Chinese imports?

introduced tariffs on 10% of $200bn worth of Chinese goods on almost 6000 products


how did China retaliate to Trump's tariffs on Chinese goods?

they placed tariffs of 5-10% on $60bn worth of American goods


What have the USA tariffs on China caused other countries to do?

voice their complaints about doing business with china in the past more confidently


Why is the American trade war with China negative for the USA?

the US has many big enterprises with a lot of vested interests in China- it can have a big impact on American businesses operating in China


What is are 2 examples of an American company that would be negatively affected by a trade war with China?

Boeing sells more airplanes in China than anywhere else in the world
Walmart produces more goods from China than any other company in the world.


Who in China is worried about the trade war with the USA?

Chinese students in the Communications University of China in Beijing are worried about job prospects in the face of this trade war.


How has the population of Mumbai grown?

in 2015 there was 22 million people- double the population in 1970


Which country is Mumbai in?



What are the main locations that immigrants to Mumbai come from?

from rural Uttar, Pradesh, Bihar (areas of India)


In which 3 areas of industry has employment grown in Mumbai?

Big brands like Hilton and Starbucks
Bollywood stars
senior management of large TNCs such as Tata and Reliance Industries


Which retail areas have grown in Mumbai and why?

retail areas like Colaba Causeway have grown by selling large numbers of goods to the emerging middle class


What is the housing like in Mumbai?

Billionaires are driving up housing prices in places like Attramount Road, but there are slum areas in places like Dharavi


In which country is Karachi?



What is the population of Karachi, Pakistan?

24 million in 2015, second in the world after Tokyo


What are the main areas that internal migrants to Karachi come from?

rural places like the Sindh and Punjab provinces


What is the main areas that international migrants to Karachi come from?

South Asia


What are the main areas of employment in Karachi, Pakistan?

shipping, banking, retailing, and manufacturing


There are famous universities in Karachi, Pakistan, which has led to what?

the city has become a media hub, where channels like GeoTV and CNBC Pakistan are based


What was China's "open door policy" and when was it introduced?

In 1979 an American embassy in Beijing opened and allowed trade so American stuff was sold, and new economy raised living standards


How are the levels of China's Net Foreign Direct Investment changing?

in the 90s China's Net Foreign Direct Investment was at about 50 million dollars but it has risen to over $60 million and continues to rise


At what rate has the Chinese economy been growing for the last 20 years?

the Chinese economy has 9-10% annually for the last 20 years


What has the quick rate of the Chinese economy's growth lead to?

A lot of inflation and the talk of limiting growth


How are SEZs different to normal areas?

less tax, tariffs, quotas, customs and labor regulations


What did China do in 2001 to free up trade?

They joined the World Trade Organisation- increasing the number of trading partners


How does China rank in the world in terms of % of GDP from manufactured goods?

Ranked 82, below Estonia and Iceland- China exports much more than both countries, but because its economy is so big, the % of the GDP is smaller


How do China and Iceland compare in terms of internet bandwidth availability?

Iceland is third in the world despite there being less people in Iceland connected to the internet than in China- this is because Iceland's population is smaller


What percentage of China's population is living abroad?

only 1% is living abroad because there are loads of government restrictions on movement


How do Estonia and China compare in terms of percentage of population living abroad?

Estonia has more people living abroad as there is free movement of people in the EU while there are government restrictions of the movement of people in China


Why is glocalisation important to TNCs?

Adapting to different cultural norms
To use local ingredients/materials
Play to local favourites to boost sales
Changing advertising to make it understandable to locals
Changing products to make them affordable for locals


What are two arguments in support of globalisation in Papua New Guinea?

there is evidence that people in Bougainville welcomed the change of colonialism
In Bougainville there was less resistance to outsiders than there was when the area was first touched by colonialism.


How is the globalisation of Papua New Guinea affecting local water quality?

increasing development around the country is resulting in more waste entering rivers and coastal waters, causing deterioration in water quality


What is increasingly seen in Papua New Guinea rivers and along shorelines?

rubbish, especially plastic


How much control is there over waste in Papua New Guinea?

none- surface runoff discharges apart from the actions of a few large corporate entities


Why is waste not managed in Papua New Guinea?

lack of public awareness and the low priority of environmental concerns to the public and government
Regulatory agencies are unable to enforce water quality standards and discharge conditions
There is no data to help monitor or manage environmental standards


What happens to sewage and waste in Papua New Guinea?

untreated or partially treated sewage, domestic wastes and industrial wastes are frequently disposed of into natural waters


What is happening to water supplies in rural areas of Papua New Guinea?

they are coming under strain as populations grow- these areas have no access to governmental environmental services


What is putting water supplies under strain in Papua New Guinea?

urbanisation- lack of water supply is causing major health problems


What habitats are being put under pressure in Papua New Guinea as the country becomes increasingly developed?



Why is it a problem that development in Papua New Guinea is putting strains on local wetlands?

they provide vital feeding for many species
they act as important filters for surface waters so wetland plants like mangroves can survive there


What percentage of Papua New Guinea is dependent on their local environment?



Which resources in Papua New Guinea are in decline?

Marine and coastal resources, especially those with commercial value, such as shellfish


Why are marine and coastal resources in decline in Papua New Guinea?

This is because of over-harvesting, destructive fishing methods, and increasing pollution of coastal waters.


What is happening to the land in Papua New Guinea due to land based development?

Land degradation. The damage is usually localised, but can extend further by its effect on downstream water quality.


How is the land in Papua New Guinea being degraded?

Disturbances to soil nutrient balances and fertility from development and soil being lost through exposure and erosion.


Can Papua New Guinea use strategies to prevent land degradation due to development?

Conservation techniques can be used, but they are frequently not applied correctly.


Is air pollution a problem in Papua New Guinea?

One or two industrial emissions outside the main urban centres have been reported as sometimes emitting dense black clouds of smoke


Where is Bougainville?

It is the most remote island of Papua New Guinea


Which central colonial authorities has Bougainville had relations with?

Papua New Guinea, Australian control, and Japanese military forces


How have the relations between Bougainville and central colonial authorities been?



What caused an ethno-nationalist rebellion in Bougainville, which aimed to claim independence from Papua New Guinea?

conflict in 1988 over mine ownership lead to the destruction of one of the world's largest copper and gold mines which is located in Bougainville by Papua New Guinea police


When did most non-Bougainvilleans leave Bougainville in fear of their lives?

1989- during the ethno-nationalist rebellion that aimed to claim independence from Papua New Guinea


When was a political settlement reached between Bougainville and Papua New Guinea after the ethno-nationalist rebellion there?

in 2001- there would be a referendum on independence in 10 or 15 years


What made Bougainville Papua New Guinea's wealthiest province?

the mine and cocoa production- however, most people there continue to rely on subsistence farming


What was altered in Bougainville with the arrival of colonialism?

customary social structures and traditions


What did Bougainvilleans say happened during the 20years after WW2?

they said they experienced racist treatment from “whites”, and colonial neglect leading to limited infrastructure and economic development.


What did locals of Bougainville think about the profits from the mine?

They felt that the distribution of profit from the mine was unfair, within the people on the island, and also considering the amount that went to Papua New Guinea.


What happened in Bougainville in the 1960s?

Many people came from abroad to Bougainville in the 1960s, taking opportunities at the mine that should have been open to the locals.


What groups have been started in Bougainville due to globalisation?

Damien Dameng's Me'ekamui Onoring Pontoku (roughly translated from the Nasioi language as "government of the guardians of the sacred land").


What does the Bougainvillean group "government of the guardians of the sacred land" think?

Dameng and his supporters believed that customary social structures and ways were being undermined by the outside world. Dameng disapproved of the mine as it brought outsiders, and destroyed land.


How did Dameng build support for his group in Bougainville? ("government of the guardians of the sacred land")

From around 1959, Dameng built support among several thousand people around ideas of rebuilding customary social structures.


What was happening in Bougainville in the mid-1980s?

increasing intensity of participation in the cash economy gave rise to new kinds of disputes that traditional leaders were not well-equipped to deal with.


What was the impact of increased social mobility in Bougainville?

The increasing availability of education, together with new forms of economic activity and increasing mobility, reduced social cohesiveness, and young people were less willing to accept customary authority and limits on behavior.


What percentage of people in Bougainville are unemployed?



What has grown up recently in Bougainville due to urbanisation?



What are some of the impacts of hydroelectric dams being built along the Mekong?

forest and farmland usually lost
people must be evicted
can destroy fisheries, scour riverbeds, cause more erosion, and dramatically change the amount of silt and sediment transported downstream.
make the area more prone to the floods of droughts of climate change
food security hit


What area will be most hit by food insecurity due to hydroelectric dams being built in the Mekong?

the Delta, which is rich and fragile


How has the amount of silt transported by the Mekong changed?

In 1990, 160m tonnes of silt was brought down the Mekong and reached the sea. Now only 75m tonnes gets there.


How much sediment from the Mekong does not reach the sea anymore?



Why is sand and silt being removed from the Mekong?

sand used for construction of cities


What is happening to the silt used for farming in the Mekong?

it is being stopped by dams


How has the flow of the south of Vietnam the Mekong changed?

Vietnam’s prime minister says that in the South the average flow of the Mekong river has been reduced by 10% in 30 years as a result of dams already built on the Mekong.


What is the biggest planned dam project in Laos?

the 260MW Don Sahong dam which, if built, will span a major channel of the Mekong just 2km from the Cambodian border


Why has the government of Cambodia objected to the planned Don Sahong dam in Laos?

Cambodia's food supplies would be endangered


How has Laos defended its planned Dan Sahong dam?

the deputy prime minister responded to the fears of neighboring countries by saying the dam will only use 15% of the Mekong's flow


How many dams is Cambodia planning to build on the Mekong?

over 40 dams (including the Mekong's tributaries)- all expected to force large scale evictions of communities


What Cambodian dam is expected to be the most ecologically and culturally devastating?

the $800m Lower Sesan 2 dam- because the rivers that it will harness contribute the most sediment to the Mekong


What impact could the Lower Sesan 2 dam have on fish in the Mekong?

it could lead to a 9.3% decline in fish biomass throughout the whole Mekong basin


How many people would be affected by the Lower Sesan 2 dam?

over 100 villages would be flooded or affected. Upstream, 5,000 people will moved in 21 villages


Why is the Lower Sesan 2 dam so damaging culturally?

tribal villages that will be displaced depend on the rivers and believe in river and forest spirits. They pray to the river to give them harvests and to catch wildlife.


Where will the electricity generated by the Lower Sesan 2 dam go?

Phom Penh, the capital of Cambodia- not to anyone who lives off the three rivers that will be negatively affected


What did people find in relocation villages after being displaced by the Lower Sesan 2 dam?

the health centre was not finished, the electricity was not connected, there is no drinking water and the outdoor toilet overflows.


What promises made to locals because of the construction of the Lower Sesan 2 dam were not kept?

The company promised to give 5 hectares of land to families but the people do not know where it is located or if it’s possible to grow anything. They said they would pay people $200 for moving early, but nothing happened.


Why is the delta of the Mekong in South Vietnam under stress?

Land that was densely forested only 50 years ago is now intensively farmed and home to nearly 20 million people. the whole delta is under stress from the linked effects of climate change, rising sea levels, deforestation, and dam building on top of breakneck industrial and urban development. Coastal erosion is leaking nutrients and the delta is sinking.


Where along the Mekong do scientists expect to see the effects of climate change most?

close to the sea and in Ho Chi Minh City, or Saigon


What makes Ho Chi Minh City so susceptible to climate change?

it is one of the most polluted, fast growing and vulnerable mega-cities in the world. Population has doubled in 25 years to over 8 million and 60% of the urban area of Vietnam’s is just 1.5m above sea level.


What could happen to Ho Chi Minh City by 2050?

a 26cm sea level rise projected by the UN to hit by 2050 could swamp nearly 70% of the whole urban area costing its economy billions of dollars