Flashcards in Superpowers Deck (174)
What academic defines "superpowers"?
Alice Lyman Miller in 2006
How did Alice Lyman Miller define "superpowers" in 2006?
"A country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time and so may attain the status of global hegemony."
What is hegemony?
dominance of one state over others
What are 7 ways in which a country can project power?
military, geography, economically, politically, natural resources, demographic, cultural
What are three mechanisms that can be used to exert hard power?
military force, economic sanctions, trade agreements
What are three mechanisms that can be used to exert soft power?
trade agreements, political influence, cultural influence
What is hard power?
based on military intervention, coercive diplomacy, and economic sanctions. Therefore, it relies on tangible power resources
What is an example hard power being used?
the German invasion of Poland in 1939
How did Wilson define soft power?
In 2008, Wilson defined soft power as "the capacity to persuade others to do what one wants."
Which academic defined soft power?
Wilson, in 2008
What is an example of soft power being used?
China's scholarship offers to African students
What does the effectiveness of hard power depend upon?
the size of a state and a its national income so it can financially maintain a large armed forces and put other states under economic pressure
What does the effectiveness of soft power rely on?
soft power relies less on the size of the state
Is soft power effective for the long or short term?
it makes long term change
Is hard power effective for the long or short term?
short term- it requires less time to become effective than soft power
What is smart power?
draws from both hard and soft power resources. It underscores the necessity of a strong military, but also invests heavily in alliances, partnerships, and institutions
What does hard power often lead to?
It often leads to conflict as it compels actions from target states- this is why soft power lasts longer
Is hard power effective as foreign policy?
it is hard to find successful foreign policies based solely on hard power
Which academic commented on geopolitics and control and when?
Halford Mackinder, 1904
What did Halford Mackinder say about geopolitics and control?
"Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island; Who rules the World Island commands the World." (1904)
What is the "Heartland", according to Halford Mackinder?
north and central Eurasia (inaccessible by sea or navy)
What is the "Rimland" according to Halford Mackinder?
Eurasian coastal areas and countries
What is the "World Island", according to Halford Mackinder?
Africa and Eurasia
Why did Halford Mackinder worry about geopolitics in 1904?
he was worried about the development of railway lines undermining the power of the British navy
What are six ways in which countries can project power?
militarily, economically, politically, culturally, demographically, natural resources, geographically
In the Superpower Index, which factors are weighted heaviest?
military spending (20), GDP (15), member of UN security council (5)- every other factor worth 1
Which countries are ranked highest in the Superpower Index?
USA, China, Russia, India, Japan, UK, Germany
How is POWER defined by Nye?
the "ability to affect others to get the outcome one wants" (2009)
What is PERSUASIVE POWER according to Nye?
"associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology, and institutions" (2009)
What type of soft power is increasingly used in today's politics?
volunteering and intercultural exchanges- overseas volunteer work is a form of soft power that contributes measurably to the security and well-being of Western countries.
What is a judgement about the effectiveness of soft and hard power?
the demise of hard power is caused by changes in the world order, whereas the strength of soft power is based on its endurance and sustainability.
How have patterns of power changed globally?
British Empire powerful in 1920
The Cold War world 1945-1990
USA dominates today
A future multi-polar world?
What type of power did the British Empire exert?
direct power- soft power turned into hard power
Who was Cecil Rhodes?
He became extremely rich colonising Africa on behalf of the British
What was the British Empire like in 1713?
In 1713, it was just a few scattered territories, including Bermuda, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Calcutta
How big was the British Empire in 1850?
It included: India, New Zealand, Singapore, British Guinea, coastal Australia
Roughly when was the first genocide committed by the British Empire?
How big was the British Empire in 1914?
Australia, Canada, South Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe
How big if the "British Empire" now?
only consists of naval bases, some Antarctic territory, Bermuda, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar
When did British power in India begin?
in the 1700s with the British East India Company
How did India's GDP change over the time that British had power there?
India's GDP was 27% of the world's total GDP in 1700, but dropped to 3% of the world's total GDP in 1947
How did the East India Company enforce its interests in India?
it hard its own private army
Why was mapping extremely important to the British Empire gaining and maintaining power over territories?
the British and French created extremely detailed maps of areas of India for military reasons to control India- this consolidated British control in India
How did the British government start to exert power over India?
British power in India was enforced when the government sent in troops to protect the huge revenue flows to the UK when the local Indians weren't cooperating and trading
How did the British maintain power over India using soft power?
power was maintained by building hugely concentrated railways
What started a peaceful resistance against British control in India?
Ghandi created an Indian consciousness, and a sense that the occupation was wrong.
What was the significance of cotton in the Indian resistance against British power?
Under British rule, India exported raw cotton to Britain- Britain kept it as a primary producer. Ghandi invited millions to spin their own cotton, to be more independent. So a cotton wheel represented freedom and independence- and is still shown on the Indian flag
What made it too expensive for Britain to maintain overseas territories?
the wars- Britain was poverty stricken and the USA didn't want Britain to have an Empire and therefore wouldn't support it.
Politically, when did Britain move away from ambitions of growing or maintaining the Empire?
the labour party in 1946 was radical and left wing and didn't want an Empire, reflecting public opinion
How were JFK and Krushchev's perceptions of each other decided during the Cold War?
they only had one meeting, in which their fixed perceptions of each other as "the other"- born from ignorance
When was Berlin divided?
What were two key events which led to the downfall of the USSR?
Czech Velvet Revolution in November 1989
Union Solidarity allowed elections in Poland in 1989
When did Ghana get its independence from Britain?
Who was Ghana's first independent president?
Kwame Nkrumah- a communist
Why were the Russians very happy with Ghana's first independent president?
he was a communist- Russia created a stamp in Russia to celebrate him
What did Kwame (the first independent president of Ghana) say that neocolonialism was?
"it devises innumerable ways to accomplish objectives formerly achieved by naked colonialism."
Why is the voting share in the IMF undemocratic?
61% of votes at the IMF are held by 14 members, and 39% of votes are held by 172 of the members
What percentage of the IMF voting share is held by the USA?
Are there other regional banks in the world apart from the IMF?
There are regional banks in other areas of the world such as South America and Africa but they are much smaller and so less influential
How much security assistance does the USA send to Afghanistan each year?
$3.67 billion per year to Afghanistan
How much security assistance does the USA send to Israel each year?
How much security assistance does the USA send to Iraq each year?
How much security assistance does the USA send to Egypt each year?
How much security assistance does the USA send to Pakistan each year?
$319.7 million to Pakistan paid to allow USA presence in Afghanistan- the USA launched attacks against Afghanistan from Pakistan
How much economic assistance does the USA send to Afghanistan each year?
How much economic assistance does the USA send to Jordan each year?
How much economic assistance does the USA send to Nigeria each year?
What is an example of cultural imperialism of American culture in China?
Malboro cigarettes- American cigarettes marketed in China with the packet showing a Chinese man dressed as a cowboy
How many countries in the world have US troops in them?
156 have US troops in them, and only 46 don't have US troops in them
How many countries have US military troops AND naval bases in them?
What are two examples of modern political spheres of influence?
the Commonwealth (Canada, Australia, India, South Africa)
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)
When did Russia invade Crimea?
Why did Russia invade Crimea in 2014?
Russia's huge size is hindered in strength by the fact that there's only one ice-free port- Sevastopol in Ukraine in Crimea
What was the catalyst that prompted Putin to invade Ukraine?
on 25/02/2013 Ukraine started negotiating with the EU to join
Why was Putin confident enough to enter Syria?
the USA had not been willing to enter into a conflict over Crimea- this gave Putin confidence
How important is Russia now in Syria?
They are the most important international player there
What does Putin say he is trying to do in Syria?
What is Putin really trying to do in Syria?
Putin's supporting Assad to control Syria
When did people rise up against Assad in Syria?
What did Assad do in response to people rising up against him in Syria in 2011?
He began barrel bombing his opposition
How has Russia's support impacted Assad's power?
He would have been toppled without the support of Russia
Why did ISIS become involved in the conflict in Syria?
ISIS tried to take advantage of the conflict and gain power
How large will India's economy be by 2030?
the third largest economy by 2030
How does Russia rank in the world in terms of amount of fossil fuels produced?
2nd largest producer of fossil fuels worldwide
What proportion of global military spending is the USA responsible for?
For how long has Brazil been rapidly growing?
the last 20yrs
Which countries are the BRICS?
Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
What is the G20?
important industrial and developing economies discuss key issues in the global economy
What is the relationship like between GDP/capita and oil consumption?
it is relatively linear- the richer, the more oil used
How is the USA ranked in the world in terms of GDP per capita and oil consumption?
the USA has the highest GD per capita and uses the most crude oil after Canada
How much has China invested in Zambia?
more than 10million since 2010
How much has China invested in Ghana and Nigeria?
over 10 billion
How much has China invested in South Africa, Tanzania, and Chad?
over 5 billion
Why is there a conflict in the South China Seas?
China is claiming more territorial waters than the nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone around them
What does China claim in the South China Sea and how have there shown this?
The Spratly Islands- they have built airstrips there
They say the whole South China Sea is there natural sphere of influence
Why is the USA angry with China's claim on the South China Sea?
they see it as their sphere of influence as they have had a presence there since WW2
By how much did India's economy grow between 1997 and 2015?
Between 1997 and 2015 India's economy quadrupled in size
By how much did India's economy grow annually between 1997 and 2015?
the Indian economy averaged 7% annual growth between 1997 and 2015
When and at what level did manufacturing peak in India?
it was 17% of the GDP in 1995, and is now at 14%
What did the widespread use of English in India lead to?
the growth of out-sourced industries in IT
In which areas is infrastructure poor in India?
energy, water, and transport- and power cuts are frequent
When was there a major power cut in India?
in July 2012 a power cut affected 620 million people
What percentage of Indians live in abject poverty?
Why did the value of the Indian rupee decrease?
the government was in large debt
How many people are voters in India/
672million- making India the world's largest democracy
What are three ways in which India plays a major role in geopolitics?
Founding member of the UN
Takes part in UN peacekeeping missions
member of the G20
How big is India's military?
the four largest in the world
How many films does Bollywood produce a year?
1200- making it the biggest film industry in the world- though without Hollywood's global reach
What is the population of India?
1.27 billion (in 2016) - the world's second largest population after China
Ho much of India's population is between 15 and 64 years old?
How does India rank in the world in terms of emitting CO2?
it's the world's third largest emitter of CO2
What is the population of China?
1.37 billion in 2016
How does China's GDP per capita compare to that of the USA?
It is only 10% of the USA's GDP/capita due to its huge population, showing that its wealth has not spread across the population
How much of China's adult population has graduated from university and how does this compare to most developed countries?
only 2% in 2009 compared to the 25-30% in most developed countries
What does China's low level of university graduates impact?
affects China's potential in the knowledge economy
What contributes to China's massive levels of debt?
its State-run companies and banks all invest heavily overseas
What is China's political system like?
An authoritarian system with a one-party government that rarely gets involved in global crises
How big is China's military?
it has the world's largest army
What is China's demographic like?
an ageing population- this will be exasperated by the fact that the Chinese retire aged 51
What percentage of China's population will be over 65yrs old by 2020? (compared to India)?
12% of China will be over 65 in 2020 compared to 6% of India
How much CO2 does China emit compared to the rest of the world/
China emits the most CO2 globally
By how much has China's CO2 emissions rose?
emissions rose 286% from 1990-2013
What percentage of global CO2 emissions does China produce?
33% of global emissions
When did China begin to commit to reductions in CO2 emissions?
Who created the Modernisation Theory and when?
Rostow in 1960
What does the Modernisation World Theory say?
it shows a positive linear trajectory of society's progression
What are the different stages of societal progression, according to the Modernisation World Theory?
traditional society- preconditions for take off- take off- drive to maturity- high mass consumption
In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a "traditional society"?
In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society with "preconditions for take off"?
the beginnings of education and banks
In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society at "take off"?
economics become more important than tradition
In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society in the "drive to maturity"?
people can choose their professions and services are growing
In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society with "high mass consumption"?
What are the problems with the Modernisation Theory?
it is very simplistic, Eurocentric, and doesn't account for problems that get in the way of progression, such as colonialism
Who created the dependency theory and when?
AG Frank in 1966
How is the world system structured in the Dependency Theory?
There is the CORE of the world system, with four PERIPHERIES surrounding it. There are arrows from each of the peripheries to the core and from the core to each of the peripheries. The core expands
What are the four things that the core sends to the peripheries in the Dependency Theory world system?
polluting industries, aid, manufactured goods, and political ideas
What are the four things that the peripheries sends to the core in the Dependency Theory world system?
raw materials, brain drain, debt repayments, and political support
When was the "Take off period" (according to the modernisation theory) for Great Britain?
When was the "Take off period" (according to the modernisation theory) for USA?
How is the UK a brain drain to Ghana?
each year about 400 professional nurses enter the job market in Ghana but in 2004 700 nurses left to work in the UK. The result is that only 20,000 nurses are currently working in Ghana.
How is Jamaica caught in giving debt repayments to "the core" (Dependency Theory)?
Jamaica's foreign debt amounts to $17 billion
How many development project is China funding in Africa and how much are they worth? (Trying to gain geopolitical power)
China is financing 1,673 development projects worth $75bn in 50 African countries
How is Nigeria exporting raw materials to "the core" (Dependency Theory)?
petroleum exports revenue in Nigeria represents almost 83% of total exports
How are developed countries exporting polluting industry to Bangladesh? (Dependency Theory)
shipbreaking in Bangladesh has stockpiled 79,000 tonnes of asbestos
Who was the World Systems Theory and when?
Wallerstein, in the 1970s
How does the World Systems build upon the Modernisation Theory and the Dependency Theory?
Wallerstein rejects the previous focus on the nation state, the assumption that there is only a single path of evolutionary development for all countries, and the disregard of transnational structures that constrain local and national development
What are the three different tiers to the triangle in the Worlds Systems theory?
Core- the top tier
Semi Periphery- the second tier
Periphery- the lowest tier
What ares of the world make up the CORE in the Worlds Systems theory?
Europe and the USA (world hegemons)
What is a world hegemon?
A major/leading world power
What ares of the world make up the SEMI PERIPHERY in the Worlds Systems theory?
China, Russia, India, Brazil
What ares of the world make up the PERIPHERY in the Worlds Systems theory?
In the Worlds Systems theory, which two processes are shown to have lead to the establishment of the core, semi periphery, and periphery structure?
European Feudalism lead to the development of capitalism which lead to the establishment of the core, semi periphery, and periphery structure
In the Worlds Systems Theory, what are characteristics of CORE countries?
focus on high-skill, capital intensive production
In the Worlds Systems Theory, what are characteristics of PERIPHERY countries?
low-skill, labour-intensive production
What are IGOs?
What and where is Bretton Woods?
it is The Mount Washington Hotel, New Hampshire, USA
What happened at Bretton Woods?
the most influential meeting of the 1900s in July 1944 at the end of ww2.
Who was at the meeting at Bretton Woods in July 1944?
John Maynard Keynes from the UK and Harry Dexter White from the USA
What were the outcomes of the meeting at Bretton Woods in July 1944?
the IMF was set up
the World Bank was set up
A system was put in place for agreeing foreign exchange rates
Agreement that open markets are a good thing
How do people view the agreements made at the Bretton Woods meeting of July 1944 now?
the agreements made at the meeting are seen as old and the organisations left over from an expired time
Where is the IMF based?
Who is the head of the IMF?
always a European
Who does the IMF favor?
promotes policies that favor US and Europe- eg. structural adjustments
Where is the World Bank based?
Are the voting shares in the World Bank equal?
no- 50% of votes are held by 9 countries
Who does the World Bank favor?
Europe and the USA
What does the World Bank have a reputation for?
A reputation for financing projects which were wasteful, corrupt, environmentally damaging, and burden poor countries with debt
Where is the World Trade Organisation (WTO) based?
What does the World Trade Organisation (WTO) do and who does it favor?
Regulates world trade, promoting free trade, which tends to favor the USA and Europe
How are decisions made in the World Trade Organisation (WTO)?
Decision-making by "mutual agreement", but Europe and the USA are the most influential
What has the World Trade Organisation (WTO) helped create?
an explosion in global trade
What is the total of value of world trade now?
$32 trillion (2017)
What structural adjustments did the IMF make to Zambia in the 1990s?
they cut spending, scrapped subsidies, liberalised the exchange rate and privatised over 200 state-run firms