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Flashcards in Superpowers Deck (174)
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1

What academic defines "superpowers"?

Alice Lyman Miller in 2006

2

How did Alice Lyman Miller define "superpowers" in 2006?

"A country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time and so may attain the status of global hegemony."

3

What is hegemony?

dominance of one state over others

4

What are 7 ways in which a country can project power?

military, geography, economically, politically, natural resources, demographic, cultural

5

What are three mechanisms that can be used to exert hard power?

military force, economic sanctions, trade agreements

6

What are three mechanisms that can be used to exert soft power?

trade agreements, political influence, cultural influence

7

What is hard power?

based on military intervention, coercive diplomacy, and economic sanctions. Therefore, it relies on tangible power resources

8

What is an example hard power being used?

the German invasion of Poland in 1939

9

How did Wilson define soft power?

In 2008, Wilson defined soft power as "the capacity to persuade others to do what one wants."

10

Which academic defined soft power?

Wilson, in 2008

11

What is an example of soft power being used?

China's scholarship offers to African students

12

What does the effectiveness of hard power depend upon?

the size of a state and a its national income so it can financially maintain a large armed forces and put other states under economic pressure

13

What does the effectiveness of soft power rely on?

soft power relies less on the size of the state

14

Is soft power effective for the long or short term?

it makes long term change

15

Is hard power effective for the long or short term?

short term- it requires less time to become effective than soft power

16

What is smart power?

draws from both hard and soft power resources. It underscores the necessity of a strong military, but also invests heavily in alliances, partnerships, and institutions

17

What does hard power often lead to?

It often leads to conflict as it compels actions from target states- this is why soft power lasts longer

18

Is hard power effective as foreign policy?

it is hard to find successful foreign policies based solely on hard power

19

Which academic commented on geopolitics and control and when?

Halford Mackinder, 1904

20

What did Halford Mackinder say about geopolitics and control?

"Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island; Who rules the World Island commands the World." (1904)

21

What is the "Heartland", according to Halford Mackinder?

north and central Eurasia (inaccessible by sea or navy)

22

What is the "Rimland" according to Halford Mackinder?

Eurasian coastal areas and countries

23

What is the "World Island", according to Halford Mackinder?

Africa and Eurasia

24

Why did Halford Mackinder worry about geopolitics in 1904?

he was worried about the development of railway lines undermining the power of the British navy

25

What are six ways in which countries can project power?

militarily, economically, politically, culturally, demographically, natural resources, geographically

26

In the Superpower Index, which factors are weighted heaviest?

military spending (20), GDP (15), member of UN security council (5)- every other factor worth 1

27

Which countries are ranked highest in the Superpower Index?

USA, China, Russia, India, Japan, UK, Germany

28

How is POWER defined by Nye?

the "ability to affect others to get the outcome one wants" (2009)

29

What is PERSUASIVE POWER according to Nye?

"associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology, and institutions" (2009)

30

What type of soft power is increasingly used in today's politics?

volunteering and intercultural exchanges- overseas volunteer work is a form of soft power that contributes measurably to the security and well-being of Western countries.

31

What is a judgement about the effectiveness of soft and hard power?

the demise of hard power is caused by changes in the world order, whereas the strength of soft power is based on its endurance and sustainability.

32

How have patterns of power changed globally?

British Empire powerful in 1920
The Cold War world 1945-1990
USA dominates today
A future multi-polar world?

33

What type of power did the British Empire exert?

direct power- soft power turned into hard power

34

Who was Cecil Rhodes?

He became extremely rich colonising Africa on behalf of the British

35

What was the British Empire like in 1713?

In 1713, it was just a few scattered territories, including Bermuda, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Calcutta

36

How big was the British Empire in 1850?

It included: India, New Zealand, Singapore, British Guinea, coastal Australia

37

Roughly when was the first genocide committed by the British Empire?

1850

38

How big was the British Empire in 1914?

Australia, Canada, South Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe

39

How big if the "British Empire" now?

only consists of naval bases, some Antarctic territory, Bermuda, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar

40

When did British power in India begin?

in the 1700s with the British East India Company

41

How did India's GDP change over the time that British had power there?

India's GDP was 27% of the world's total GDP in 1700, but dropped to 3% of the world's total GDP in 1947

42

How did the East India Company enforce its interests in India?

it hard its own private army

43

Why was mapping extremely important to the British Empire gaining and maintaining power over territories?

the British and French created extremely detailed maps of areas of India for military reasons to control India- this consolidated British control in India

44

How did the British government start to exert power over India?

British power in India was enforced when the government sent in troops to protect the huge revenue flows to the UK when the local Indians weren't cooperating and trading

45

How did the British maintain power over India using soft power?

power was maintained by building hugely concentrated railways

46

What started a peaceful resistance against British control in India?

Ghandi created an Indian consciousness, and a sense that the occupation was wrong.

47

What was the significance of cotton in the Indian resistance against British power?

Under British rule, India exported raw cotton to Britain- Britain kept it as a primary producer. Ghandi invited millions to spin their own cotton, to be more independent. So a cotton wheel represented freedom and independence- and is still shown on the Indian flag

48

What made it too expensive for Britain to maintain overseas territories?

the wars- Britain was poverty stricken and the USA didn't want Britain to have an Empire and therefore wouldn't support it.

49

Politically, when did Britain move away from ambitions of growing or maintaining the Empire?

the labour party in 1946 was radical and left wing and didn't want an Empire, reflecting public opinion

50

How were JFK and Krushchev's perceptions of each other decided during the Cold War?

they only had one meeting, in which their fixed perceptions of each other as "the other"- born from ignorance

51

When was Berlin divided?

1961

52

What were two key events which led to the downfall of the USSR?

Czech Velvet Revolution in November 1989
Union Solidarity allowed elections in Poland in 1989

53

When did Ghana get its independence from Britain?

1957

54

Who was Ghana's first independent president?

Kwame Nkrumah- a communist

55

Why were the Russians very happy with Ghana's first independent president?

he was a communist- Russia created a stamp in Russia to celebrate him

56

What did Kwame (the first independent president of Ghana) say that neocolonialism was?

"it devises innumerable ways to accomplish objectives formerly achieved by naked colonialism."

57

Why is the voting share in the IMF undemocratic?

61% of votes at the IMF are held by 14 members, and 39% of votes are held by 172 of the members

58

What percentage of the IMF voting share is held by the USA?

17%

59

Are there other regional banks in the world apart from the IMF?

There are regional banks in other areas of the world such as South America and Africa but they are much smaller and so less influential

60

How much security assistance does the USA send to Afghanistan each year?

$3.67 billion per year to Afghanistan

61

How much security assistance does the USA send to Israel each year?

$3.1 billion

62

How much security assistance does the USA send to Iraq each year?

$808 million

63

How much security assistance does the USA send to Egypt each year?

$1.31 billion

64

How much security assistance does the USA send to Pakistan each year?

$319.7 million to Pakistan paid to allow USA presence in Afghanistan- the USA launched attacks against Afghanistan from Pakistan

65

How much economic assistance does the USA send to Afghanistan each year?

$1 billion

66

How much economic assistance does the USA send to Jordan each year?

$632.4 million

67

How much economic assistance does the USA send to Nigeria each year?

$604.5 million

68

What is an example of cultural imperialism of American culture in China?

Malboro cigarettes- American cigarettes marketed in China with the packet showing a Chinese man dressed as a cowboy

69

How many countries in the world have US troops in them?

156 have US troops in them, and only 46 don't have US troops in them

70

How many countries have US military troops AND naval bases in them?

63 countries

71

What are two examples of modern political spheres of influence?

the Commonwealth (Canada, Australia, India, South Africa)
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)

72

When did Russia invade Crimea?

2014

73

Why did Russia invade Crimea in 2014?

Russia's huge size is hindered in strength by the fact that there's only one ice-free port- Sevastopol in Ukraine in Crimea

74

What was the catalyst that prompted Putin to invade Ukraine?

on 25/02/2013 Ukraine started negotiating with the EU to join

75

Why was Putin confident enough to enter Syria?

the USA had not been willing to enter into a conflict over Crimea- this gave Putin confidence

76

How important is Russia now in Syria?

They are the most important international player there

77

What does Putin say he is trying to do in Syria?

eradicate ISIS

78

What is Putin really trying to do in Syria?

Putin's supporting Assad to control Syria

79

When did people rise up against Assad in Syria?

2011

80

What did Assad do in response to people rising up against him in Syria in 2011?

He began barrel bombing his opposition

81

How has Russia's support impacted Assad's power?

He would have been toppled without the support of Russia

82

Why did ISIS become involved in the conflict in Syria?

ISIS tried to take advantage of the conflict and gain power

83

How large will India's economy be by 2030?

the third largest economy by 2030

84

How does Russia rank in the world in terms of amount of fossil fuels produced?

2nd largest producer of fossil fuels worldwide

85

What proportion of global military spending is the USA responsible for?

34%

86

For how long has Brazil been rapidly growing?

the last 20yrs

87

Which countries are the BRICS?

Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

88

What is the G20?

important industrial and developing economies discuss key issues in the global economy

89

What is the relationship like between GDP/capita and oil consumption?

it is relatively linear- the richer, the more oil used

90

How is the USA ranked in the world in terms of GDP per capita and oil consumption?

the USA has the highest GD per capita and uses the most crude oil after Canada

91

How much has China invested in Zambia?

more than 10million since 2010

92

How much has China invested in Ghana and Nigeria?

over 10 billion

93

How much has China invested in South Africa, Tanzania, and Chad?

over 5 billion

94

Why is there a conflict in the South China Seas?

China is claiming more territorial waters than the nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone around them

95

What does China claim in the South China Sea and how have there shown this?

The Spratly Islands- they have built airstrips there
They say the whole South China Sea is there natural sphere of influence

96

Why is the USA angry with China's claim on the South China Sea?

they see it as their sphere of influence as they have had a presence there since WW2

97

By how much did India's economy grow between 1997 and 2015?

Between 1997 and 2015 India's economy quadrupled in size

98

By how much did India's economy grow annually between 1997 and 2015?

the Indian economy averaged 7% annual growth between 1997 and 2015

99

When and at what level did manufacturing peak in India?

it was 17% of the GDP in 1995, and is now at 14%

100

What did the widespread use of English in India lead to?

the growth of out-sourced industries in IT

101

In which areas is infrastructure poor in India?

energy, water, and transport- and power cuts are frequent

102

When was there a major power cut in India?

in July 2012 a power cut affected 620 million people

103

What percentage of Indians live in abject poverty?

20%

104

Why did the value of the Indian rupee decrease?

the government was in large debt

105

How many people are voters in India/

672million- making India the world's largest democracy

106

What are three ways in which India plays a major role in geopolitics?

Founding member of the UN
Takes part in UN peacekeeping missions
member of the G20

107

How big is India's military?

the four largest in the world

108

How many films does Bollywood produce a year?

1200- making it the biggest film industry in the world- though without Hollywood's global reach

109

What is the population of India?

1.27 billion (in 2016) - the world's second largest population after China

110

Ho much of India's population is between 15 and 64 years old?

66.2%

111

How does India rank in the world in terms of emitting CO2?

it's the world's third largest emitter of CO2

112

What is the population of China?

1.37 billion in 2016

113

How does China's GDP per capita compare to that of the USA?

It is only 10% of the USA's GDP/capita due to its huge population, showing that its wealth has not spread across the population

114

How much of China's adult population has graduated from university and how does this compare to most developed countries?

only 2% in 2009 compared to the 25-30% in most developed countries

115

What does China's low level of university graduates impact?

affects China's potential in the knowledge economy

116

What contributes to China's massive levels of debt?

its State-run companies and banks all invest heavily overseas

117

What is China's political system like?

An authoritarian system with a one-party government that rarely gets involved in global crises

118

How big is China's military?

it has the world's largest army

119

What is China's demographic like?

an ageing population- this will be exasperated by the fact that the Chinese retire aged 51

120

What percentage of China's population will be over 65yrs old by 2020? (compared to India)?

12% of China will be over 65 in 2020 compared to 6% of India

121

How much CO2 does China emit compared to the rest of the world/

China emits the most CO2 globally

122

By how much has China's CO2 emissions rose?

emissions rose 286% from 1990-2013

123

What percentage of global CO2 emissions does China produce?

33% of global emissions

124

When did China begin to commit to reductions in CO2 emissions?

2016

125

Who created the Modernisation Theory and when?

Rostow in 1960

126

What does the Modernisation World Theory say?

it shows a positive linear trajectory of society's progression

127

What are the different stages of societal progression, according to the Modernisation World Theory?

traditional society- preconditions for take off- take off- drive to maturity- high mass consumption

128

In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a "traditional society"?

subsistence farming

129

In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society with "preconditions for take off"?

the beginnings of education and banks

130

In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society at "take off"?

economics become more important than tradition

131

In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society in the "drive to maturity"?

people can choose their professions and services are growing

132

In the Modernisation Theory, what are characteristics of a society with "high mass consumption"?

post-industrial society

133

What are the problems with the Modernisation Theory?

it is very simplistic, Eurocentric, and doesn't account for problems that get in the way of progression, such as colonialism

134

Who created the dependency theory and when?

AG Frank in 1966

135

How is the world system structured in the Dependency Theory?

There is the CORE of the world system, with four PERIPHERIES surrounding it. There are arrows from each of the peripheries to the core and from the core to each of the peripheries. The core expands

136

What are the four things that the core sends to the peripheries in the Dependency Theory world system?

polluting industries, aid, manufactured goods, and political ideas

137

What are the four things that the peripheries sends to the core in the Dependency Theory world system?

raw materials, brain drain, debt repayments, and political support

138

When was the "Take off period" (according to the modernisation theory) for Great Britain?

1783-1802

139

When was the "Take off period" (according to the modernisation theory) for USA?

1843-1860

140

How is the UK a brain drain to Ghana?

each year about 400 professional nurses enter the job market in Ghana but in 2004 700 nurses left to work in the UK. The result is that only 20,000 nurses are currently working in Ghana.

141

How is Jamaica caught in giving debt repayments to "the core" (Dependency Theory)?

Jamaica's foreign debt amounts to $17 billion

142

How many development project is China funding in Africa and how much are they worth? (Trying to gain geopolitical power)

China is financing 1,673 development projects worth $75bn in 50 African countries

143

How is Nigeria exporting raw materials to "the core" (Dependency Theory)?

petroleum exports revenue in Nigeria represents almost 83% of total exports

144

How are developed countries exporting polluting industry to Bangladesh? (Dependency Theory)

shipbreaking in Bangladesh has stockpiled 79,000 tonnes of asbestos

145

Who was the World Systems Theory and when?

Wallerstein, in the 1970s

146

How does the World Systems build upon the Modernisation Theory and the Dependency Theory?

Wallerstein rejects the previous focus on the nation state, the assumption that there is only a single path of evolutionary development for all countries, and the disregard of transnational structures that constrain local and national development

147

What are the three different tiers to the triangle in the Worlds Systems theory?

Core- the top tier
Semi Periphery- the second tier
Periphery- the lowest tier

148

What ares of the world make up the CORE in the Worlds Systems theory?

Europe and the USA (world hegemons)

149

What is a world hegemon?

A major/leading world power

150

What ares of the world make up the SEMI PERIPHERY in the Worlds Systems theory?

China, Russia, India, Brazil

151

What ares of the world make up the PERIPHERY in the Worlds Systems theory?

Sub-Saharan Africa

152

In the Worlds Systems theory, which two processes are shown to have lead to the establishment of the core, semi periphery, and periphery structure?

European Feudalism lead to the development of capitalism which lead to the establishment of the core, semi periphery, and periphery structure

153

In the Worlds Systems Theory, what are characteristics of CORE countries?

focus on high-skill, capital intensive production

154

In the Worlds Systems Theory, what are characteristics of PERIPHERY countries?

low-skill, labour-intensive production

155

What are IGOs?

Inter-governmental organisations

156

What and where is Bretton Woods?

it is The Mount Washington Hotel, New Hampshire, USA

157

What happened at Bretton Woods?

the most influential meeting of the 1900s in July 1944 at the end of ww2.

158

Who was at the meeting at Bretton Woods in July 1944?

John Maynard Keynes from the UK and Harry Dexter White from the USA

159

What were the outcomes of the meeting at Bretton Woods in July 1944?

the IMF was set up
the World Bank was set up
A system was put in place for agreeing foreign exchange rates
Agreement that open markets are a good thing

160

How do people view the agreements made at the Bretton Woods meeting of July 1944 now?

the agreements made at the meeting are seen as old and the organisations left over from an expired time

161

Where is the IMF based?

Washington DC

162

Who is the head of the IMF?

always a European

163

Who does the IMF favor?

promotes policies that favor US and Europe- eg. structural adjustments

164

Where is the World Bank based?

Washington DC

165

Are the voting shares in the World Bank equal?

no- 50% of votes are held by 9 countries

166

Who does the World Bank favor?

Europe and the USA

167

What does the World Bank have a reputation for?

A reputation for financing projects which were wasteful, corrupt, environmentally damaging, and burden poor countries with debt

168

Where is the World Trade Organisation (WTO) based?

Switzerland

169

What does the World Trade Organisation (WTO) do and who does it favor?

Regulates world trade, promoting free trade, which tends to favor the USA and Europe

170

How are decisions made in the World Trade Organisation (WTO)?

Decision-making by "mutual agreement", but Europe and the USA are the most influential

171

What has the World Trade Organisation (WTO) helped create?

an explosion in global trade

172

What is the total of value of world trade now?

$32 trillion (2017)

173

What structural adjustments did the IMF make to Zambia in the 1990s?

they cut spending, scrapped subsidies, liberalised the exchange rate and privatised over 200 state-run firms

174

What happened to the Zambian economy as a result of the structural adjustments recommended by the IMF?

by the end of the 1990s, income per person in Zambia had shrunk by 8%