Flashcards in Glossary- 17- (Evolution) Deck (58):
The haploid phase of the life history. Produces the male and female gametes.
Refers to algal or plant life histories in which the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic phases are different (often very different) in size and structure.
The mitotic process in higher-plant organisms in which the nuclear envelope is non-persistent during division, and the mitotic spindle remains intact, keeping the daughter nuclei relatively far apart during cell-plate formation.
The mitotic process in algal organisms in which the nuclear envelope is persistent throughout division, and the collapse of the mitotic spindle results in the close proximity of the daughter nuclei during cell-plate formation.
The diploid phase of the life history. Meiosis takes place here within sporangia to produce haploid spores in plants that have an alternation of generations
The water-conducting cells of plants, secondarily thickened and dead when functioning. They link up to form conducting channels in the vascular cylinder.
The water- and food-conducting tissues; consists of xylem and phloem
Water-conducting tissue consisting of tracheids and associated strengthening cells (fibres) and parenchyma
The time of flowering plant dominance. From 65 million years ago to the present day.
An ancient land mass that comprised the continents of Australia, Antarctica, India, South America and Africa.
It began to break up during the Cretaceous and the southern conti8nents gradually moved in their current positions
A plant that produces two types of meiotic spore. The smaller microspore gives rise to the “male-” or microgametophyte that produces sperm; the larger megaspore gives rise to the “female-” or megagametophyte that produces the egg cell.
A plant that produces only one type of meiotic spore. The spores germinating to produce only one type of gametophytes on which antheridia and archegonia are produced.
Time of cycad and conifer dominance (and dinosaurs). 250-65 million years ago.
A "female" part of a flower. It consists of a stigma (pollen receptive area) that is elevated on a style above the ovary (which contains ovules)
Triploid tissue resulting from the fusion of a sperm cell with the two polar nuclei of the megagametophyte. It is the food reserve for the developing embryo.
The fusion of sperm and egg (or polar )cells
The transfer of pollen from anthers to the stigma
A "male" part of a flower. It consists of an anther (pollen sac) borne on a sterile filament (stalk)
Layer of cells in embryo that develops into body features
Two germ layers
Three germ layers
Body cavity within the mesoderm
Opening in the blastula during initial cell development
Blastopore become mouth, anus either forms later or at same time as mouth
Blastopore becomes anus, mouth develops later
True segmentation is serial repetition of functional units in a body plan. Mesoderm and ectoderm are divided into segments; the endoderm is unsegmented.
Develop through series of larval stages or nymphs
Moulting = Ecdysis
Shedding the exoderm or exoskeleton between each larval or nymphal stage
Dorsal body wall of mollusc which often forms shell
In molluscs, the space between mantle and main body where gills (or lungs in terrestrial snails) are found
Specialised mouthparts in molluscs
Spikey structures surrounding the mantle in chitons
Modified spines with claws capable of movement in echinoderms
A stiff rod of mesoderm found next to the nerve chord in all chordate embryos (and some adults)
Species that eat dead and/or decaying organic matter
Species with four feet or leg-like appendages
Evolutionary origin of bird species
Group which the monotremes belong – egg laying mammals (echidna and platypus)
Marcupials, carry developing young in a pouch
Mammals that walk on the tips of the feet (on their toes)
Mammals that walk on their entire feet right up to the heel, including primates, bears and hedgehogs
Walking on two legs
The way in which organisms interact with their environment, including other organisms
The change in inherited traits found in populations of individuals
The environment, its physical properties and all the organisms and communities found there
Any group of species that live in the same place and potentially (or actually) interact with each other
A group of individuals of the same species
When two species interact closely together in a way which is beneficial to one or both
When two species interact closely and both species benefit
Species have to live together or they will not survive
Species can live together but can also survive alone for at least part of their life
When two species interact closely and one species benefits; the other appears unharmed
Ecto- and Endoparasites
Species of parasite where at least part of the lifecycle requires the parasite to live outside (ectoparasite) or inside (endoparasite) a host
Evolutionary Arms Race
When individual evolves a trait that provides an advantage, other individuals must evolve a counter trait to survive or reproduce. Because there has been counter evolution, the first individual must further evolve to stay ahead of the survival or reproductive game. These can be likened to the biological version of weapons arms races.
Competition between individuals in same species