Flashcards in Government by Terror Deck (63):
When was the first stage of the terror?
10 August 1792- 20 September 1792
Attack on the Tuileres- Battle of Valmy including the SEPTEMBER MASSACRE where 1400 people were killed.
What was the second phase of the terror?
31 May 1793- 28 July 1794
Journe against the Girondin- Death of Robespierre
What three things did the leader of the Plain believe the Convention should recognise?
1)In a state of emergency no government rules by normal methods.
2)The bourgeoise should not isolate its self from the people
3) An alliance should be made between the people and the convention
What were the three threats to the Republic in the Spring of 1793?
Military crisis and the war
Anti- republican opposition in the provinces.
Between 10 March and 20 May 1793 what were the three objectives of the conventions "Terror Laws"?
1) Identify, place under observation and punish suspects
2) Make government more effective
3) Meet the economic demands of the sans-culottes
What was the Committee of General Security?
Overall responsibility for police, security, surveillance and spying. Given the task of rooting out all anti- republican opposition. It formed part of the executive with the CPS in lathe 1793 and 1794.
When was the revolutionary tribunal set up and what was its aim?
10 March 1793, specialised in trying people accused of counter revolutionary activities.
What was the role of representatives on mission?
Jacobin deputies sent from the convention to various parts of France to reassert the authority of the government in the provinces.
What was the role of the comites de surveillance?
Watch committee set up in each commune and sent to all major towns to seek out counter revolution and provide victims for the revolutionary tribunals.
What were the summary execution decrees and when were they passed?
From 19 March any rebels captured with arms were executed immediately.
What laws were passed against the émigrés?
All property was confiscated and they were executed if they returned to France.
What were the 4 main bodies of terror in 1793?
1) CGS- controlling body
3)Representatives on mission
4)Comites de Surveillance
When was the Committee on Public Safety set up?
6 April 1793
What was the purpose of the CPS?
Overlook the actions of all ministers and speed up the process of government. It became part of the executive in 1794 along with the CGS
What was the political composition of the first CPS?
7 members of the plain, 2 Montagnards and no Girondin
What did the Montagnards ask the Girndon to stop doing?
Attacking the sans-culottes
What happened on the 26 May 1793
Robespierre sided with the Sans-Culottes and called for an armed insurrection of the Girondin deputies
When was the overthrow of the Girondin and what happended?
2 June 1793- 8000 national guards men surrounded the convention and demanded that all Girondin deputies be dismissed and maximum prices be imposed.
What happened as a result of the overthrow of the Girondin?
Charlotte Corday murdered Marat
Why did the Montagnards call the provincial revolts "federalism"?
They believed that the unity of the Republic was threatened and that central authority of the convention, CPS and CGS would be damaged.
Why did rebellions break out?
People believed that Paris had to much influence and that the Commune had to greater influence over the convention.
How many departments experience rebellions?
60 out of 83
Why were the sans-culottes growing increasingly militant?
They had brought about the greatest change with the storming of the Bastille in the 14 July 1789 and the October days in October 1789 but they had seen very little change in there own status and standard of living.
How did the influence of the sans-culottes grow?
When passive citizens could enter the national guard in July 1792 there influence grew.
What were three main principles of the Sans-Culottes?
- hated privilege and wealth
- believe in direct democracy
They demanded that they were known as citizens rather than ancien titles.
Why did the terror come into place?
Need to overthrow the internal and external enemies of the Republic.
What were the Paris Sections?
The administrative units of Paris
What did they have the power to do in 1793 which made them very powerful?
Offer Certificates of Citizenship which was proof of loyalty to the Republic and was needed before someone could apply for work.
Who controlled the sections?
Controlled by a minority of militants usually of the better of members who had time to devote to sections business.
What did the Parisian San-Culottes do with the convention?
They intimidated and persuaded the convention to take more militant actions rather than overthrow it.
Why were concession made by the CPS?
As the Sans-Culottes had made the jacobin so powerful a series of concession were made by the CPS to the sans- Culottes.
What were the concession of the CPS to the sans-culottes?
- a new constitution was presented to the people on the 24 June
- levee of mass
- economic concession such as maximum prices were introduced.
When and what was the levee on mass?
23 August 1793- marked total war in France meaning that all bodies, industries and people were at the command of the war.
Half a million conscripts were brought forward from non married men.
Why was the levee on Masse important?
It meant that France was able to win the war.
Who were the enrages?
An extreme revolutionary group led by jacques roux who had considerable influence over the Parisian sans-culottes.
What happened at the Journee on the 5 September 1793?
He demanded more extreme economic policies to help the poor, including price controls, execution of hoarders and purge of all nobles.
What was the armee revolutionnaire?
Sans- Culottes sent to the provinces to confront counter revolution and ensure the movement of food supplies.
What was the aim of the armee revolutionnaire?
- ensure food supplies moved freely
- round up deserters and execute them
- mobilise the nations resources
- establish revolutionary justice
Which two groups were they unpopular with and why?
1) The Peasants because they took grain away from them
2) CPS because they were anarchic and they felt that they were outside the region of there control.
What was the general maximum and when was it introduced?
29 September 1793 the law of general maximum was passed to control prices- fixing prices at 1/3 above that of June 1790.
It would also fix other vital commodities
What was the effect of the maximum price?
It said two common people against each other- peasants hated it because it put them out of business, sans- culottes wanted it enforced all across the country.
What happened in October 1793 and how did it change the terror?
The new constitution that had been accepted in June was suspended and the government of France was to be revolutionary until the peace:
- Terror to be controlled by the CPS and CGS
- Terror in the Vendee
- watch committees and representatives on mission purged local authority
How many cases were heard by the tribunal up to September 1793 and how many led to death?
260 cases- 25% of people were executed.
What was provincial repression used for?
To repress the revolution in the provinces and restore France to order and unit in order to preserve the Republic.
What happened in the Vendee between January and May 1794?
Troops moved through the region killing people. - 8700 people were tried by the revolutionary tribunal.
The pacification of the Vendee killing almost 10,000 people
What was the Law of Suspects?
Any suspect of counter revolution could be arrested and held without trial.- 1/2 million people put into prison without charge or trial.
What was the religious terror and how did it happen?
The s/c, commune and army was a driving force behind dechristianisation and religious change in France.
By May 1793 the commune refused to pay church's salaries
Priests were forced to renounce priesthood.
Not an official government policy but key part of the break down of the ancien regime.
What happened by the end of 1793?
The internal and external threat was begging to be brought to an end.
Federal revolts crushed
Food supply moving into towns and cities
War in Vendee over
French forces doing well in the war
What did the convention do to reduce power of S/C and restore peace?
- Sections could only meet twice a week
- Government would be revolutionary until the peace.
When and what did the Law of Frimaire establish?
4 December 1793- full revolutionary government.
2 committee were given full executive powe:
- CGS: police and security
- CPS: Head of executive
Who were the agents nationaux?
Responsible to central government to enforce the revolution. Try to end anarchy and break power of the s/c- try to provide a string government.
Why did Hebert oppose government?
Demanded left wing government
Wanted extreme economic policies and called for an armed insurrection
What was the effect of the Hebert opposition?
- Parisian club was disbanded
- Popular societies outlawed
- Purge of commune
Why did Danton oppose government?
Right wing policies- wanted to end the terror, bring in federal government and end the war.
When was the great terror?
June and July 1794
What was the Great Terror?
All tribunals now heard in Paris- elimination of Danton and Hebert supporters and the complete control of the Republic.
1594 people executed
When and what was the Law of Prairial?
10 June 1794- speeding up revolution and securing conviction of counter revolution.
Increase the power of the CPS
In which three areas did Robespierre lose support?
With the S/C
With the CPS and CGS
Why did Catholics not like Robespierre?
He wanted to unite all French men with a new civic religion called the Cult of the Supreme Being- 7 May 1794
- Catholics believed it was undermining the catholic faith
- CGS believed that it was the reintroduction of Catholicism and the ancien regime.
Why did the Sans-Culottes turn against Robesiperre?
Execution of Hebert was unpopular
Dissolution of popular societies
End of sections
Imposing maximum on wage level
People also began to question whether the terror was necessary even after the threats of war and Vendee had been dissolved.
Why did the CPS and CGS turn against Robespierre?
In April Robespierre set up a police force as part of the CPS, this created dissent with the CGS as it was outside the CPS area of control.
Members of the CPS did not like the law of Ventose which took property from the wealthy and gave it to the poor.
CPS and CGS believed Robespierre was to powerful.
When was Robespierre arrested?