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Physical Diagnosis > Gradual Onset Vision Loss > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gradual Onset Vision Loss Deck (30):
1

what conditions cause optic atrophy

MS
glaucoma
cranial arteritis

2

what is normal cup to disc ratio

30%
cup/disc

3

what does increase cup to disc ratio indicate

> 50%
chronic glaucoma

4

flame shaped or splinter/linear hemorrhages indicate what

HTN

5

punctate or blot/dot hemorrhages indicate what

Diabetes Mellitus

6

hard exudates are seen in what condition

yellow or macular star

DM, HTN, VHL disease, radiation

7

soft exudates are seen in what condition

cotton wool spot

DM, HTN, HIV, connective tissue disease

8

what is the grading scale for arteriosclerosis

grade 1 - widening of arteriole light reflex
grade 2 - above plus AV crossing defects
grade 3 - above plus COPPER WIRE APPEARANCE
grade 4 - above plus SILVER WIRE APPEREANCE

9

what is the grading scale for hypertensive retinopathy

grade 1 - mild narrowing of vessels
grade 2 - severe narrowing of vessels and AV crossing defects
grade 3 - above plus cotton spots and flame shaped hemorrhages
grade 4 - above plus malignant plus optic disc and macular swelling

10

What are the characteristics of non proliferative and proliferative diabetes

background diabetes or non proliferative
- hard and cotton wool exudates
- punctate/blot dot hemorrhages
- microaneurysms

proliferative diabetes
- neovascularization
- preretinal hemorrhages
- virteous hemorrhages

11

what are the symptoms of cataracts

clouded and blurred vision
difficult to see at night
sensitivity to light and glare
halos around lights
changes in eyeglass or contact lens
fading or yellowing of colors

12

what type of cataracts is described as opacities in various locations that are separated by areas of clear lens

immature cataracts

13

what type of cataracts is described as total opacity of the lens

mature cataracts

14

what type of cataracts is described as swollen lens encroaches on the anterior chamber where it could displace the iris forward so that it blocks flow to the eye

intumescent cataracts

15

what type of cataracts is described as wrinkling of the lens leading to liquefaction of the lens cortex which causes fluid to leak out through the lens capsule

hypermature cataracts

16

what are the 3 locations that cataracts could occur at

nuclear or lenticular - lens nucleus becomes dense - yellow or brown

cortical - opacities localized to lens cortex - may form radial spikes or progress to complete opacification of the cortex

posterior capsular - opacification of anterior or posterior capsule - POSTERIOR MC

17

what are clinical features of chronic glaucoma

cup/disc = 50%
PAINLESS
HALOS
mid peripheral vision loss
increase IOP

18

what are the clinical features of DRY age related macular

blurry vision
distorted vision
metamorphosia - straight lines appear and object may appear wrong shape or size
loss of correct color
difficulty reading
dark empty area in the center of vision
DRUSEN bodies

19

what are the clinical features of retinitis pigementosa

rare hereditary disorder
rods located in the periphery degenerate - night vision and peripheral vision lost
mild vision loss to blind

20

the pinhole testing for the eye will correct what issue

refractive errors

21

what is another term for marcus gunn pupil

relative afferent pupillary light response

22

what is the relative afferent pupillary light response

intact consensual response

paradoxical pupil dilation to direct light

swing light test used

23

what does marcus gunn pupil suggest

optic nerve lesion
extensive retinal disorder

24

what conditions have RAPD or marcus gunn pupil

optic neuritis
chronic glaucoma
optic nerve tumor
retinal detachment
severe macular degen

25

what conditions do NOT have RAPD or macus gunn pupil

refractive errors
horners syndrome
third cranial nerve palsy
mild macular degen

26

what is esotropia, exotropia, hypertropia, and hypotropia

eso - eye adducted
exo - abducted
hyper - eye superior
hypo - inferior

27

what is tropia

strabismus

deviation ALWAYS present
tropia is the resting position of the eyes when covered
deviation of eyes NOT corrected by fusion


COVER UNCOVER TEST

28

strabismus is MC when

18 months - 2 years

29

what is phoria

latent strabismus

deviation in eyes corrected by fusion
deviation SOMETIMES present when binocular vision is broken or tired eyes

COVER UNCOVER TEST

30

what is amblyopia

visual impairment in normal eye