GRAMMAR 01 Flashcards Preview

02 TOP NOTCH 3 > GRAMMAR 01 > Flashcards

Flashcards in GRAMMAR 01 Deck (87):
0

WILL BE ABLE = CAN

The doctor WILL BE ABLE to see you tomorrow

1

MAY

PUEDE

2

MIGHT

PODRÍA

3

HAD (+)

I HAD ALREADY ARRIVED BY NOON

4

YET (-)

THE MEETING HADN'T YET BEGUN WHEN WE ARRIVED

5

MUST

DEBE, TIENE QUE

6

MUST

TAMBIÉN SE USA PARA HACER CONCLUSIONES

7

YOU LOOK AWFUL

YOU MUST BE IN A LOT OF PAIN (CONCLUSION)

8

THE DOCTOR SAID I SHOULD COME IN NEXT WEEK

IT MUST NOT BE AN EMERGENCY

9

AWFUL

HORRENDO, TERRIBLE

10

MOST LIKELY

MUY PROBABLEMENTE

11

PROBABLY

Después de be; antes de negaciones y antes de otros verbos

# They're PROBABLY at the dentist
# She PROBABLY isn't feeling well
# He PROBABLY forgot the appointment

12

Se puede usar PROBABLY o MOST LIKELY al comienzo de una oración en aras de hacer una conclusión

# PROBABLY she's a teacher
# MOST LIKELY he forgot the appointment

13

MAY BE = PUEDE SER

MAYBE = TAL VEZ, QUIZÁ

14

She MAY BE a doctor

NUNCA: She MAYBE a doctor (Ella tal vez doctora ?????)

15

MAYBE she's a doctor

TAL VEZ ella es doctora

16

Los causativos son 3 verbos que se usan para que una persona convenza u ordene a otra persona (cosa) hacer algo.

Los verbos causativos son tres:
GET (Convencer)
HAVE (Dar instrucciones)
MAKE (Mandar)
Se puede decir que HAVE = MAKE

17

I GET the company TO BUY a new car

Cuando se usa GET el verbo va en INFINITIVO es decir precedido de TO

Convencí a la compañía de comprar un carro nuevo

18

They GOT the students TO CLEAN UP the class room

Convencieron a los estudiantes de limpiar el salón

19

You HAVE my assistant PLAN the meeting

Cuando se usa HAVE y MAKE el verbo va en BASE FORM, es decir NO está precedido de TO

Usted solicitó a mi asistente planear la reunión

20

They HAD the bellman BRING the guest's bags

Solicitaron al botones traer las maletas de los invitados

21

I MAKE my brother HELP me finish the job

Ordené a mi hermano ayudarme a terminar el trabajo

22

They MADE him SIGN the form

Le ordenaron firmar el formato

23

You can HAVE he DO that for you

Nótese que a pesar de ser TERCERA PERSONA el verbo va en BASE FORM. No va DOES

Puede pedirle a él que haga eso para usted

24

LET se usa para dar permiso

She LET her sister WEAR her favorite skirt

Ella dejó a su hermana vestir su falda favorita

LET no va con S al final

25

My boss LET me TAKE the day off

I DON'T LET my children STAY out after 9:00

26

Why DON'T you LET me HELP you?

Por qué no me deja ayudarlo?

27

El pasivo causativo
Dos verbos HAVE y GET que se combinan con participio
El participio NO está precedido de TO

HAVE = GET = LOGRAR

No se usa MAKE

28

I HAD my suits DRY-CLEANED

LOGRÉ que mis vestidos FUERAN lavados

29

THEY'RE HAVING the office PAINTED tomorrow

Ellos lograron que la oficina SEA pintada mañana

30

She CAN GET her sandals REPAIRED in an hour

Ella logró que sus sandalias FUERAN reparadas en una hora

31

We're HAVING the office painted BY Royal Services

Logramos que la oficina fuera pintada por Royal Services

32

TO QUOTE

ABRIR COMILLAS

33

TO UNQUOTE

CERRAR COMILLAS

34

MARTHA TOLD ME "BE HOME BEFORE THE SNOWSTORM"

MARTHA TOLD ME TO BE HOME BEFORE THE SNOWSTORM

35

EVERYONE IS SAYING "GET READY FOR A BIG STORM"

EVERYONE IS SAYING TO GET READY FOR A BIG STORM

36

MARÍA ALWAYS TELLS HIM "DON'T LEAVE YOUR DOORS OPEN"

MARÍA ALWAYS TELLS HIM NOT TO LEAVE HIS DOORS OPEN

37

CAUSATIVO. SON 3 VERBOS PARA DAR ÓRDENES

GET, HAVE AND MAKE

38

Verbos en pasado que terminan en D o T se pronuncia ED

DOWNLOADED, PAINTED

39

Todas las demás terminaciones DIFERENTES a T o D se pronuncian con T FINAL

RepaiRED (Ripairt), ShorteNED (Shortent)

40

NOUN CLAUSE

GRUPO DE PALABRAS QUE FUNCIONAN COMO UN SUSTANTIVO

41

I didn't know (that) he wrote that book

I THINK that GH's books are fantastic

42

En las respuestas se puede usar SO para reemplazar una NOUN CLAUSE. Seguido de verbos como THINK, GUESS etc.

DOES he HAVE a new book out? I think SO

43

También pueden estar precedidas de ADJETIVOS no sólo de VERBOS

WE are not surprised (that) his new book is excellent

44

Where does the story take place?

I guess that the history takes place in Fómeque

45

What does GH usually write about?

I think that he writes about biographies

OJO la pregunta y la respuesta en el MISMO TIEMPO

46

What kind of book IS he GOING TO write?

I hope he IS GOING TO write a novel

NUNCA "I hope he writes a novel"

47

Embedded questions

Llevan signo de interrogación cuando empiezan con palabra interrogativa.

48

Tell me if that magazine is good
(Sin interrogación)

Could you tell me if you read the newspaper?
(Lleva signo al final)

49

Can you tell me who it's written for?

Do you know where the writer IS from?

50

If I HAVE headache. Está mal. Siempre tiene que ir en pasado

IF I HAD HEADACHE

51

Reportar lo que alguien dijo

Los verbos van en INFINITIVO, precedidos de TO o NOT TO cuando sea necesaria una negación.

Peter said, "Be careful if you go out"

se convierte en

Peter said TO BE careful if you go out.

52

Marina says "Don't go out without a full tank of gas"

Marina says NOT TO GO out without a full tank OF gas.

She told Dan, "Call me tomorrow"

She told Dan TO CALL HER the next day. (Se debe arreglar la frase para darle sentido)

53

USE TELL WHEN YOU MENTION THE LISTENER

USE SAY WHEN YOU DON'T MENTION THE LISTENER

54

Maggie TOLD HER PARENTS TO STAY home

MAGGIE SAID TO STAY home

55

Cuando SAY y TELL están en pasado, los verbos también

Presenté se vuelve pasado

Pasado ED se vuelve Pasado Perfecto HAD

They said, "The weather IS awful"

They said (that) the weather was awful

56

Dan said, "We all had the flu"

Dan said (that) They all HAD HAD the flu

57

Hay 3 casos en los que es OPCIONAL el cambio de tiempo

1. Cuando la oración se refiere a algo que apenas acaban de decir

I just heard the news. They said a storm is coming

I just heard the news. They said a storm was coming

JUNTAS SON VÁLIDAS

58

2. Cuando se refiere a algo que es verdadero

May told us she wants to get a flu shot tomorrow

También

May told us she wanted to get a flu shot tomorrow

59

3. Cuando se refiere a una verdad aceptada, que no tiene duda

They said English is an international language

They said English was an international language

JUNTAS SON VÁLIDAS

60

I WAS GOING TO GET MARRIED

THEY WERE GOING TO STUDY

WAS SHE GOING TO STUDY LAW?

WERE YOU GOING TO TRAVEL TO AUSTRALIA?

61

WEREN'T YOU GOING TO STUDY LAW?
Yes, I was OR No, I wasn't

Where were they going to work?

Who was going to teach this class?

Were you going to study with her?

62

WOULD

Le pone al verbo la terminación RÍA

63

She thought she would be a doctor

We believed they would get married

They said they would pay for their studies

They said they were going to arrive before noon

64

INCORRECTO
She would be a doctor
CORRECTO
She thought she would be a doctor
She was going to be a doctor

No se puede usar would SÓLO, sin anteponer un verbo

65

MODALES:

SHOULD

DEBERÍA

66

OUGHT TO

DEBERÍA

67

MAY

PUEDE

68

MIGHT

PODRÍA

69

Use BE GOING to express a plan

I'm going to call a dentist

INCORRECTO

I will call a dentist

70

SHOULD HAVE

DEBIÓ

Para CRITICAR, o expresar ARREPENTIMIENTO

71

MUST HAVE + PARTICIPIO PASADO

DEBIÓ

TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS

72

WOULD HAVE, COULD HAVE

PARA EXPRESAR POSIBILIDADES IRREALES

73

MAY HAVE OR MIGHT HAVE

PUEDE O PODRÍA

PARA ESPECULAR

74

I SHOULD HAVE STUDIED MEDICINE



ARREPENTIMIENTO

SHE SHOULDN'T HAVE DIVORCED


CRÍTICA

75

I MAY HAVE FAILED THE FINAL EXAM. IT WAS SO HARD

I MIGHT HAVE FAILED .....

ESPECULACIONES

He MAY not have been able to make a living as a painter

He MIGHT not have been ....

76

It's bad he broke up with Anne. They would have been happy together

POSIBILIDADES IRREALES, COSAS QUE PUDIERON SER

He COULD HAVE prevented the accident

COSAS QUE PUDIERON SER

77

Beth is drunk. He must have drunk a lot of wine

They don't buy the house. The price MUST NOT HAVE BEEN acceptable

DRAW CONCLUSIONS

78

A MARIACHI SINGER IS SOMEONE WHO (THAT) SINGS TRADITIONAL MEXICAN MUSIC

CARNAVAL IS A HOLIDAY FOR PEOPLE WHO (THAT) LIKE PARADES

THANKSGIVING IS A CELEBRATION THAT TAKES PLACE IN NOVEMBER (NO PUEDE IR WHO)

THE PARADE THAT CONMEMORATE THIS DAY IS GOOD
NUNCA: THE PARADE THAT CONMEMORATE THIS DAT IT IS GOOD (NO PUEDE IR EL PRONOMBRE)

79

THE PERSON WHO (THAT) COMES FOR DINNER SHOULD BRING A GIFT

THE PERSON WHO (WHOM, THAT) YOU INVITE FOR DINNER SHOULD BRING A GIFT

THE PERSON YOU INVITE FOR DINNER SHOULD BRING A GIFT

NUNCA: THE PERSON COMES FOR DINNER SHOULD BRING A GIFT

80

A WHO, WHOM, THAT LOS PUEDE REEMPLAZAR UN PRONOMBRE

I, YOU, HE, ETC

THE MAN WE INVITE TO THE PARTY IS FROM FÓMEQUE

81

THE DRESS THAT SHE'S WEARING IS CALLED CHEONGSAM

SE PUEDE OMITIR

THE DRESS SHE'S WEARING IS CALLED CHEONSANG

ANZAC DAY IS A HOLIDAY WICH PEOPLE CELEBRATE IN AUSTRALIA

ANZAC DAY IS A HOLIDAY PEOPLE CELEBRATE IN AUSTRALIA

82

SUSTANTIVOS, NO CONTABLES, QUE REPRESENTAN IDEAS ABSTRACTAS.

Se usa cuando se refiere a cosas GENERALES no PARTICULARES

NO LLEVAN "THE"

VAN EN SINGULAR

83

EDUCATION IS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE

NO ⭐️ THE EDUCATION IS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE ⭐️

NO ⭐️ EDUCATIONS ARE IMPORTANT ISSUE ⭐️

84

POVERTY WAS THE TOPIC OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

CANDIDATES HAVE PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION

85

WHY DON'T

POR QUÉ NO

86

I GET my brother TO SELL his car
I HAVE the students CLEAN the board
I MAKE the employee WASH my shoes

Dígalos en PASADO

I GOT my brother TO SELL his car

I HAD the students CLEAN the board

I MADE the employee WASH my shoes