grammar: how to package nouns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in grammar: how to package nouns Deck (62):
1

all nouns in French are either
___________ or _____________

Masculine (male) or Feminine (female)

This is true of most European languages (languages based on Latin, German, or Slavic). Does this have to do with male/female gender roles or hierarchy? You tell me...

2

Masculine nouns use _____ for "the"

le

3

Feminine nouns use _____ for "the"

la

4

Why do all European languages list masculine first and feminine second?

Huh. No idea. I could take some guesses though.

5

Anyway. How would you say "the father"
_____ pére

le pére -- he's masculine

(well, unless she's trans, but that's another issue)

6

How would you say "the mother"
_____ mére

la mére -- she's ... um ... female. Probably. Maybe not all that feminine.

7

"The girl" is ____ fille

la fille

It could be worse. In German, the word "girl" is actually neuter!

8

"The boy" is ____ garçon

le garçon

By the way, the little curly-cue under the "c" makes it say "s". It's called "cedil" and it's so characteristic of French that people use that one character to denote the entire language.

9

Add "the":
___ grandmére et ____ grandpére

la, le

10

"femme" means woman.
(Pronounced like fee-fi-fo-fum)
How would you say "the woman"?

la femme

11

So how can you tell whether a noun is masculine or feminine? For example, table, chair, or flower?

One way is to memorize each noun individually. Does this sound like a good idea? For example, table and chair are feminine, but flower is masculine.

no!

(although you do have to memorize a few nouns)

12

Here are some French nouns. Can you figure out a simple rule for their gender? Hint: look at the letters in the word.

la table le nez
la chaise la bouche
le fleur le doigt

Here are the feminines:
table, chaise, bouche
Here are the masculines:
fleur, nez, doigt

Words that end in silent "e" are almost always FEMININE
Words that don't end in silent "e" are usually MASCULINE

13

So, to recap: Most nouns that end in ____ are feminine.

"e" (specifically, a silent "e", no accent mark)

14

The gender of clothing, for example, has nothing to do with the gender of the wearer. What gender is each of these:
cravate (cravat, tie)
ceinture (belt, think: cinch)
bikini
jupe (skirt)
minijupe
boxer-short
smoking (tuxedo)
pyjama
manteau (mantle, coat)
robe (robe, dress)

la cravate
la ceinture
le bikini
la jupe
la minijupe
le boxer-short
le smoking
le pyjama
le manteau
la robe

15

Let's add some adjectives. In French, the adjective must have the same gender as the noun. What does that mean?

Look at the two adjectives below. Both mean "green". Which one do you think is feminine?

vert verte

"verte" is feminine

16

How did you know "verte" is feminine?

Because it ends with a silent "e"!

17

How could you make "bleu" feminine?

Add a silent "e":

bleue

18

How could you make "noir" feminine?

Add a silent "e":

noire

19

So if you wanted to say "the green robe", you would say
la robe ....

la robe verte

20

How about the green smoking jacket?

le smoking vert

21

The green bikini?

le bikini vert

22

The green skirt (jupe)?

la jupe verte

23

An interesting thing happens when you add a silent "e" onto an adjective: it means that the final consonant will get pronounced.

For example: "petit" (small) sounds like peh-tee
What does "petite" sound like?

"petite" sounds like "peh-teet"

the "t" is no longer silent

24

Add "petit" or "petite" before each piece of clothing
la cravate
la ceinture
le bikini
la jupe
la minijupe
le boxer-short
le smoking
le pyjama
le manteau
la robe

la petite cravate
la petite ceinture
le petit bikini
la petite jupe
la petite minijupe
le petit boxer-short
le petit smoking
le petit pyjama
le petit manteau
la petite robe

25

To make a PLURAL in French,
there are 3 different rules

The first rule is, for most words, add "s"
just like English, except the s will be silent

Also, don't forget the change le/la to les

So, the plural of la fille is ....

la fille --> les filles

pronounced : la feey --> lay feey

26

What is the plural for
le garçon?

le garçon --> les garçons

27

The second rule is
words that end in "u" usually add "x"
the x is also silent

Plural of le bateau?

le bateau --> les bateaux

28

Plural of l'oiseau

l'oiseau --> les oiseaux

29

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

la femme

la femme --> les femmes

30

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

le chapeau (the hat)

le chapeau --> les chapeaux

31

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

la maison

la maison --> les maisons

32

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

le diner

le diner --> les diners

33

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

la valise

la valise --> les valises

34

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

le chapiteau (big-top tent)

le chapiteau --> les chapiteaux

35

"s" or "x" to make the plural?

la guerre

la guerre --> les guerres

36

To say "there is a...", you say "il y a un/une..."
For example, There is an elephant would be

Il y a _____ elephant.


Il y a un elephant.

37

There is a cat.

Il y a un chat.

38

There is a bird

Il y a un oiseau.

39

There is a table.

Il y a une table.

40

There is a cat on the table.
(sur la table)

Il y a un chat sur la table. Mais non!!!

41

To say "there are some... " you say

Il y a des... (and the nouns will be plural)

For example, "there are some cats" is...

Il y a des chats.

42

How do you say

"There are some cats at my house" (chez moi)

Il y a des chats chez moi.

43

Really? How many cats are there at your house?
How do you say
"There are 5 cats at my house"

Il y a cinq chats chez moi.

44

Cinq chats?! Mais non!

(Five cats? Oh no!)
Ah oui!

45

How do you say
"There are some cats on the table"

Il y a des chats sur la table.

46

That's bad! C'est mal!
How many cats are there on the table?
How do you say
"There are only two"

Il y a seulement deux.

47

How about dogs? The word for dog is
chien
Do you like it is "un chien" or "une chien"?

un chien

48

how would you say
"the large dog" and "the small dog"
(hint: large is "grand")

le grand chien
le petit chien

49

how about "the dogs"?

les chiens

50

how about
"there is a dog on the table"

"il y a un chien sur le table"

ça, c’est insupportable!

51

To say "there isn't...." you need 2 extra words:
_________ and _____________

ne .... pas

52

"ne" goes before "y", and it get's shortened to:
n'y
which letter is missing?

"e" is replaced by an apostrophe

53

"pas" goes at the end of "il y a", so the whole phrase is....
il n'y _____ _______

il n'y a pas

54

The nice thing about things that you don't have,
is that you don't need to know much about them.
For example, you don't need to know their gender.
Instead of UN or UNE, you just say "de".

Fix this sentence:
Il n'y a pas UN chien.

Il n'y a pas DE chien.

55

Make this sentence negative:
Il y a un leon chez nous.

(chez nous = living with us)

Il n'y a pas de lion chez nous.

56

Make this sentence negative:
Il y a un léopard chez nous.

Il n'y a pas de léopard chez nous.

57

Make this sentence negative:
Il y a un serpent chez nous.

Il n'y a pas de serpent chez nous.

58

Make this sentence negative:
Il y a une vache chez nous. (cow)

Il n'y a pas de vache chez nous.

59

"de" even works with plurals.
Make this sentence negative:
Il y a des chiens chez nous.

Il n'y a pas de chiens chez nous.

60

Make this sentence negative:
Il y a des souris chez nous. (mouse)

Il n'y a pas de souris chez nous.

61

Make this sentence negative:
Il y a des punaises chez nous. (bedbugs)

Il n'y a pas de punaises chez nous.

62

There is only one time "de" can change in
"Il n'y a pas de..."
Here is an example that needs to change:

Il n'y a pas de elefants chez nous.

Can you guess what the change is and why?

Il n'y a pas d'elefants chez nous.

The change happens because it's easier to say
d'elefants
and harder to say
de elefants