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Flashcards in sentence patterns Deck (73):
1

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

HE/SHE IS ... (adj).

2

Make two sentences with:

joli grand maigre costaud
est nerveux hereux il

(examples)

Il est maigre.
Il est grand et costaud.
Il est hereux, mais aussi nerveux.

3

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

If the subject is feminine, the adj must also be feminine. In many cases, you can just add and 'e'. When you do, the ending consonant(s) will be PRONOUNCED.

What is fem for joli, grand, y costaud?

Elle est jolie, grande, et costaude.

4

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

adjectives that end in 'eux' change to 'euse", so the pronunciation changes from "euh" to "euz"

What is fem for nerveux mais hereux?

Elle est nerveuse mais hereuse.

5

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

Write a sentence describing Jenny.

(example)

Elle est jolie et genereuse.

6

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

Write a sentence describing George.

(example)

Il est frêle et maigre.

7

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

Write a sentence describing Horace.

(example)

Il est costaud et narquois.

8

IL/ELLE EST ...(adj)

Write a sentence describing Will is feeling and how Alyss is feeling.

(example)

Il est nerveux, mais elle est calme.

9

IL/ELLE N'EST PAS ...(adj)

Use one or two adjectives to describe George

fort courageux genereux gracieux mechant
narquois serieux travailleur faible

(example)

Il n'est pas narquois ou mechant.

10

IL/ELLE N'EST PAS ...(adj)

Use one or two adjectives to describe Alyss

fort courageux genereux gracieux mechant
narquois serieux travailleur faible

(example)

Elle n'est pas mechante ou narquoise.

11

infinitive verb ... is the "neutral" form of the verb.
It has no endings for tense or person.
In English, we say "to + verb" (like, "to dance").
Most infinitive verbs in french end in "er".

What's the infinitive of "to dance"?
How do you pronounce it?

to dance = danser
pronounced dans - ay

12

About 6% of infinitives end in -ir, like "finir",
and 4% end in -re, like "repondre"

So, how many end in -er?

about 90% of French infinitives end in -er

13

Here are some verbs for things you do at the gym.
Find the infinitives that DON'T end in -er

sauter vouter courrir crocher monter
grimper tomber plier percher suspendre
lever s'entrainer tirer pousser s'etirer

courrir = run suspendre = hang

sauter/jump vouter/valut courrir/run
crocher/hook monter/climb
grimper/climb tomber/fall plier/bend
percher/perch suspendre/hang
lever/lift s'entrainer/train
tirer/pull pousser/push s'etirer/stretch

14

IL/ELLE VEUT + inf

He/she wants to (do something).

How would you say "He wants to dance"?

Il veut dancer.

15

IL/ELLE VEUT + inf

This is an easy but useful sentence pattern because the verb "veut" doesn't change (as long as you stay in the 3rd person), and the infinitive doesn't change.

Make two sentences:
veut sauter vouter il
elle courrir crocher monter

(examples)

Il veut courrir et vouter.

Elle veut monter, crocher, et tomber.

16

IL/ELLE VEUT + inf

Some infinitives from RA:
cuisinier disputer combattre choisir
négocier escribir lire monter à cheval
voler glisser s'entrainer

What do Jenny and Alyss want to do?

(examples)

Jenny veut cuisinier, mais Alyss veut négocier.

17

IL/ELLE VEUT + inf
What do Horace and George want to do?

(examples)

Horace veut combattre, mais George veut disputer.

18

IL/ELLE VEUT + inf
What are 2 things Will wants to do?

(examples)

Will veut combattre et monter à cheval.

19

Here are the 20 most common verbs in French.
Sort them into -er, -ir, and -re

etre avoir pouvoir faire mettre dire devoir prendre donner aller vouloir savoir
falloir voir demander trouver
rendre venir passer comprendre

How many are -er, -ir, and -re?

-er 5
-ir: 8 (6 of these are -oir)
-re 7

So... common verbs are often -ir or -re,
but less common verbs are almost always -er

20

IL/ELLE NE VEUT PAS + inf

Yup, negative. What does George NOT want to do?

(example)

Il ne veut pas cuisinier.

21

Lots of other verbs can fill in the VERB+INF sentence pattern, like:
IL/ELLE PEUT + inf
IL/ELLE DOIT + inf
IL/ELLE SAIT + inf (know how to)

Make 2 sentences:

peut il danser escribir grimper
elle tomber doit sait suspendre

(example)

Elle ne doit pas suspendre, elle doit tomber!!

Il ne peut pas danser, mais il sait escribir.

22

IL/ELLE SAIT QUE + clause

If you want to say "He knows THAT blah blah blah" you need a different sentence pattern. Use "que" to mean "that". After "que", you need a full clause (subject + verb + other optional stuff).

Will knows what Jenny wants to do. What is it?

Will sait que Jenny veut cuisinier.

23

IL/ELLE SAIT QUE + clause

Jenny knows that Will doesn't want to cook...

Jenny sait que Will ne veut pas cuisinier,

24

IL/ELLE SAIT QUE + clause

If you want to say "that he does something", you have to pay attention to how the words "that" and "he" fit together.

que+il = qu'il

Just like in English, the apostrophe stands for a missing letter.

How can you say that Will knows he doesn't want to cook>

Will sait qu'il ne veut pas cuisinier.

25

IL/ELLE SAIT QUE + clause

And Jenny knows she doesn't want to fight?

(be careful with how que + elle fit together)

Jenny sait qu'elle ne veut pas combattre.

26

Horace knows he can't ride a horse.

Horace sait qu'il ne peut pas monter à cheval.

27

Horace knows he shouldn't say that.

Horace sait qu'il ne doit pas dire ça.

28

CHALLENGE:

Horace knows that he shouldn't say that he knows how to ride a horse-

Horace sait qu'il ne doit pas dire qu'il sait monter à cheval.

29

IL/ELLE A ... ANS

For ages, use "have... years" instead of "is ... years"

How old is Will?

(example)

Will a quinze ans.

30

UNE PERSONNE QUI + verb

This is not a full sentence!! It is just a description.
For example: une fille qui aime glousser

A girl that loves to laugh

31

UNE PERSONNE QUI + verb

Describe Jenny -- what kind of person is she?

(example)

Jenny est une fille qui aime cuisinier.

32

UNE PERSONNE QUI + verb

What kind of person wants to become a warrior?

Une personne qui aime combattre veut devenir guerrier.

33

UNE PERSONNE QUI + verb

What kind of person does Will like?

Will aime une fille qui veut etre diplomate.

34

SUBJ + VERB

So far, we've made sentences with the VERB+inf pattern (elle veut, peut, doit, sait...). However, you also need to use just the plain verb. For example:

SUBJ+VERB+INF: Elle veut combattre.
SUBJ+VERB: Elle combat.

What does "elle combat" mean?

she fights

35

SUBJ + VERB

The problem with this sentence pattern is that you need to know how to conjugate the verb. That means, the endings change depending on the subject.

How does "combattre" change in "elle combat"?

"combattre" --> "elle combat"

drop the "re" and also the extra "t"

36

SUBJ + VERB

So how do you think you would say

She puts. (inf: mettre)

Elle met.

37

SUBJ + VERB

Remember that there are 3 ways that inf can end. What are they? Which is the most common?

-er (most common)
-ir
-re

38

SUBJ + VERB

Here are the conjugated forms of the top 20 verbs in French. Write them next to the inf in your notebook. What patterns do you see?

est a peut fait met dit devoit prend donne vait veut sait
fait voit demande trouve
rend vient passe comprend

er --> drop the r

ir --> drop the r, add a t (silent t)

re --> drop the re, also drop the second t if there is one, or add a t IF there's no t or d.

HOWEVER, there are several irregular verbs -- they change their stems.

39

SUBJ + VERB

il or elle... Hey look, no irregular verbs!!

sauter vouter courir crocher monter
grimper tomber plier percher suspendre
lever s'entrainer tirer pousser s'etirer

saute voute court croche monte
grimpe tombe plie perche suspend
leve s'entraine tire pousse s'etire

40

SUBJ + a + PARTCIPLE
ex: Elle a tombé.
This is also called "passé composé"

Here is the past tense pattern, like you're telling a story. What does "a" mean?

Also, what does "passé composé" mean?

"a" means "has".
It's called a "helper verb".

"passé composé" means "compound past tense" -- because you need a helper verb plus main verb -- the verb is "compound" not "simple".

41

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ
ex: Elle ___ monté.

How do you pronounce "monté"

"a" goes in the blank

"montay" == just like the infinitive!

42

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ
ex: Elle ___ monté.

What would the English translation of monté be?

mountED -- in general, words that end with é in French will end with "ed" in English -- UNLESS they are irregular in English.

This is called the "past participle"

43

What helper verb is used with the past partciple in English? in French?

have/has/had
a / avait

44

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

How do you make a past participle for an "ER" verb?

change "er" to é

45

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

How would you say "She ate the pizza"?

Elle a mangé le pizza.

46

In English, you could say "she has eaten the pizza", but usually we just use "She ate the pizza".

This is called the "simple past tense", as opposed to the "compound past tense" used in French.

How would you say "She climbed the silks".

Elle a grimpé le tissu.

47

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

How would you say "She pushed and pulled the prowler." (hint: pousser, tirer)

Elle a poussé et tiré le prowler.

48

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

An "IR" verb forms the past participle with just "I" (so, drop the "r" from the infinitive). So:

finir ==> ???
punir --? ???

fini
puni

49

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

She finished the book (livre)

Elle a fini le livre.

50

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

What is the last group of French verbs?

-re

51

Here are some -re verbs. What are their participles?

fondre (melt)
tendre (stretch)

fondu
tendu

52

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

She melted the cheese (fromage)

Elle a fondu le fromage.

53

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

She fought for equality.

Elle a combattu pour l'égalité

54

Quick summary:

How to make participles?
-ER -IR -RE

é i u

55

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

All the sentences you've made so far have been a single clause -- which means

SUBJECT + VERB + OPTIONAL OTHER STUFF

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Elle est forte.

subj = elle
verb = est

56

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Elle grimpe sur le tissu.

Subj = elle
verb = grimpe

57

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Bucky et Marian parlent avec les soldats.

subj = Bucky et Marian
verb = parlent

58

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Marian veut devenir soldate.

subj = Marian
verb = veut

"veut" is the main verb of the clause. It is followed by an infinitive, because veut connects to a second verb using an infinitive.

59

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Bucky a devenu soldat.

subj - Bucky
verb= a devenu

"a" is a HELPER VERB. It goes with the past participle to make the passe compose.

60

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Marian n'est pas faible.

subj=Marian
verb = est

So part of the negative comes before the verb...

61

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Marian n'a pas devenue une tricoteuse.

subj=Marian
verb = a devenue

Notice what happens to the helper verb and main verb!

62

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Marian ne veut pas tricoter tout le temps.

subj = Marian
verb = veut

63

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

Il y a deux soldats de l'hiver.

This one is a bit tricky.

subj = Il
verb = a

"Il" is called a "dummy subject". it is not really a subject (there's no "he" in the sentence") but it stands in place of a subject.

"y" means "there"

It's easiest just to memorize this particular sentence pattern.

64

CLAUSE: SUBJ + VERB

What is the subject in the following sentence?
What is the verb?

C'est bon.

Also a bit tricky

subj = ca
verb = est

In French, "it is" is translated by the contraction "c'est".

65

CONJUNCTIONS

A "conjunction" is a word or phrase that allows us to stick 2 clauses together into a single sentence.

What are the clauses in this sentence?
What is the conjunction?

Marian est forte, et elle peut grimper rapidement.

clause 1: Marian est forte.
clause 2: Elle peut grimper rapidement.

conj = "et"

66

CONJUNCTIONS: ET, MAIS

The most common conjunctions are "and" and "but".
In French, "et" and "mais".

How do you say:
Marian=happy & Bucky = calm

Marian est hereuse et Bucky est calm..

67

CONJUNCTIONS: ET, MAIS

How do you say:
Marian=happy BUT Bucky = nervous

Marian est hereuse mais Bucky est nerveux..

68

CONJUNCTIONS: PARCE QUE, ALORS

These are conjunctions of cause and effect.
"Parce que" tells you the cause.

How do you say:
Bucky = nervous CUZ Marian is climbing fast.

Bucky est nerveux, parce que Marian grimpe rapidement.

69

CONJUNCTIONS: PARCE QUE, ALORS

These are conjunctions of cause and effect.
"Alors" (which means "then") tells you the effect.

How do you say:
Marian is climbing fast SO Bucky=nervous

Marian grimpe rapidement, alors Bucky est nerveux

70

CONJUNCTIONS: QUAND

This is a conjunctions of time. ("when")

How do you say:
Marian is happy WHEN she climbs

Marian est hereuse quand elle grimpe rapidement.

Other conjunctions of time (like "before" and "after") are more complicated to use.

71

CONJUNCTIONS

How do you say
Bucky fights WHEN there is a war. (une guerre)

Bucky combat quand il y a une guerre.

72

CONJUNCTIONS

How do you say
Bucky fights BECAUSE there is a war. (une guerre)

Bucky combat parce qu'il y a une guerre.

73

CONJUNCTIONS

What are the 5 conjunctions we just discussed?
*think and, but, cause&effect, time

Use them to write a story.

et, mais
parce que, alors
quand