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Flashcards in Grays - Back Deck (40)
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What type of cartilage gives the tensile strength of the IV disc?

- Fibrous

* The tensile strength comes from the anulus fibrosus, which
limits rotation between vertebrae.


Compression of nerves at the intervertebral forarmen indicates? What structure is most likely responsible?

- Disc Herniation - Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus through the annulus fibrosis POSTEROLATERALLY into the spinal cord or intervertebral foramen.


Whiplash injuries typically injures which ligament of the vertebral bodies?

- Anterior longitudinal ligament


Spinal canal stenosis syndrome is associated with?

- Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum


What structure of the spinal nerve is solely responsible for sensory innervation?

- The dorsal root ganglion


Weakness during medial rotation and adduction of the humerus would indicate injury to what nerve?

- Thoracodorsal n. - Innervates Latissimus dorsi m. (major muscle that medially rotates and adducts humerus)


Which muscle is responsible for first 15 degrees of abduction?

- Supraspinatus


Where is CSF typically withdrawn from?

- Lumbar cistern (subarachnoid space) - Between L3-L4 or L4-L5


What level does the spinal cord usually terminate at in an adult?

- L1-L2


Which nerve fibers are responsible for conveying pain, pressure, touch, temperature, and proprioception to the CNS?

- Somatic afferent via dorsal primary rami


A caudal anesthetic is administered via where and enter which space?

The sacral hiatus and enters the epidural space


Damage to the tip of the transverse process of the third cervical verterbra, with a significantly large pulsating hematoma will most likely damage which artery?

- Vertebral artery travels through the transverse foramen


Drooping of the shoulder would indicate injury to whicg nerve?

- Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) innervating Trapezius m.


Which ligament anchors the dens laterally to prevent posterior displacement?

- Transverse ligament of the atlas (cruciform ligament) attaches to the pedicles and stabilizes the dens *If torn can cause compression of the spinal cord by the dens


Spondylolysis is most commonly seen in which spinal region?

Cervical due to their small size and horizontally oriented articular facets the cervical vertebrae are less tightly locked than other vertebrae


The internal vertebral venous plexus surrounds?

The dura mater in the spinal epidural space


The atlantoaxial joint is primarily responsible for what type of movement?

Rotation of the head


The atlantooccipital joint is primarily responsible for what type of movement?

Flexion and Extension of the head/neck


In a lumbar puncture what is the order of structures penetrated by the needle?

Supraspinous ligament--> Interspinous ligament--> Ligamentum flavum --> Epidural space --> Dura mater --> Arachnoid mater --> Subarachnoid space *SILEDAS*


How does the head of the rib articulate with verterbrae?

The rib articulates with the superior facet on the body of its own vertebra and with the inferior facet on the body of the vertebra above *The fourth rib articulates with the superior facet of T4 and the inferior facet of T3


What vertebral level is the conus medullaris located at?

L1 to L2


Which condition presents with protrusion of the spinal cord and meninges in the lower back?



At which locations are the spinal nerves most likely to be compressed during IV disc compression?

Between the superior and inferior vertebral notches


Caudal epidural blocks are typically administered into what space, using what as the landmark?

- The sacral canal, through the sacral hiatus - Using the Sacral Cornua as a landmark


Vertebral arch separation at the zygapophysial joint is called?

- Spondolysis


Anterior displacement of the vertebra is known as?

- Spondylolisthesis


The odontoid process, or the dens, projects superiorly from the body of the axis and articulates with?

Anterior arch of the atlas *Commonly injured with fracture of the dens


What is often seen in the vertebral column, as a secondary condition to muscular dystrophy and polio?

Scoliosis can be a secondary condition in such disorders as muscular dystrophy and polio in which abnormal muscle does not keep the normal alignment of the vertebral column and results in a lateral curvature.


What is the embryologic origin of the anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, respectively?

- Annulus fibrosis = Mesenchyme

- Nucleus Pulposus = Notochord


A "hangman's fracture" results from forcible hyperextension and fractures which structure of the cervicle spine?

The pedicles (pars articularis) of C2 are fractured and the cruciform ligament is torn (fracture of the vertebral arch).