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Flashcards in GRFC - electrotherapy Deck (33)
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1

Electricity

Form of energy composed of atoms
Proton (+)
Neutron
Electron (-)

2

Voltage/ electromotive force

Force that moves or drives electrons

Unit of measure: Volt

3

Current/ current intensity

Net flow of electrons
(+), (-), or both (+) and (-)

Unit of measure: Ampere

4

Resistance

Opposition to electron flow

Unit of measure: Ohm

5

Ohm's law

I = V/R

6

Conductor

Facilitates electron flow or flow or electricity

Examples include H2O, metals, among others

7

Resistor/ insulator

Resists electron flow

8

Ions

Charged particles
Cation (+)
Anion (-)

9

Electrotherapy

The use of electric current and its variants in rehabilitation and treatment

10

Differences between cathode and anode in terms of
-pH
-risk for burns
-skin color
-polarization
-NCV
-effect
-function/indication

(pH)
-anode acidic
-cathode basic

(risk for burns)
-anode less risk
-cathode more risk

(skin color)
-anode pinkish hyperemia (blush)
-cathode mottled red

(polarization)
-anode hyperpolarization
-cathode depolarization

(NCV)
-anode decrease NCV
-cathode increase NCV

(effect)
-anode sclerosis (hardening)
-cathode sclerolysis (softening)

(function/indication)
-anode wound closure, skin hardening
-cathode disinfection

11

Law of magnetism

Opposite charges attract
Like charges repel

12

Electrotonus

Anelectrotonus: decreased muscle activity caused by anode

Catelectrotonus: increased muscle activity caused by cathode

13

Pleuger's law/ polar formula/ Erb's formula

For normal or innervated muscles, or for those with UMNL:
-COC-ACC-AOC-COC

For those with denervated muscles, for those with LMNL:
-ACC-COC-COC-AOC

NOTE:
-COC: cathode opening circuit
-CCC: cathode closing circuit
-AOC: anode opening circuit
-ACC: anode closing circuit

14

Resting membrane potentials

Muscle: -90mV
Nerve: -70mV
Heart: -88mV
GIT: -56mV

15

Electrical properties of nerves

-Electrical excitability/ resting membrane potential
-Refractory period
-Accommodation

16

Factors affecting resting membrane potential

-Speed
-Intensity
-Duration

17

Types of refractory period

Absolute refractory period:
-No AP can be generated even with supramaximal stimulus

Relative refractory period
-AP can be generated with supramaximal stimulus

18

Accommodation

Decreasing intensity as the body adapts

19

Dubois Raymond law

A sudden change in current intensity is needed to stimulate a nerve

20

Types and characteristics of currents

LFC
-frequency (Wadsworth): 1Hz to 2000Hz
-frequency (O'Sullivan): 1Hz to 1000Hz
-affects innervated and denervated muscles
-for motor purposes
-AC, DC, ES, FES, NMES, TENS (value)

MFC
-frequency (Wadsworth): 3000Hz to 6000Hz
-frequency (O'Sullivan): 1000Hz to 10000Hz
-affects innervated muscles
-for sensory purposes
-IFC, Russian current, TENS (effect)

HFC
-frequency (Wadsworth): >500000Hz
-frequency (O'Sullivan): >10000Hz
-does not affect nerves
-for thermal purposes
-UTZ, SWD, MWD, IRR-UVR, LASER

21

Direct/ monophasic/ Galvanic current

One phase/ polarity

Best for wound healing (especially high volt pulsed Galvanic current (HVPGC))

Best for denervated muscles (especially rheobasic current)

22

Types of direct current

Direct continuous/ direct uninterrupted:
No off-time or pulsed interval
For iontophoresis
Incrased risk for medical Galvanism (burn, fatigue)

Direct pulsed/ direct interrupted:
With off-time
Decreases risk for burn or fatigue

23

Types of direct interrupted/ direct pulsed current

Short DIC/ Faradic type
Frequency: 50Hz to 70Hz
Pulse duration: 0.02ms to 1ms
Application: Tetanic contraction
Sensation: Marked stabbing
Use: For innervated muscles

Long DIC

24

Types of long direct current/ long direct interrupted current

Rectangular long DIC/ quick rise
Frequency: no fixed
Pulse duration: 1ms - 600ms
Use: For innervated, denervated muscles

Sharp long DIC/ exponential progressive current/ slow rise
Frequency: 300ms - 1000ms
Use: For denervated muscles
Forms: Triangular, saw-toothed, trapezoid

25

Alternating current/ biphasic/ polyphasic

Has 2 polarities; switches from (+) to (-) to (+)
Decreased risk of burn and fatigue

26

Types of alternating current

Faradic
Uneven, assymmetrical AC
Frequency: 50Hz
Pulse duration: 1ms
Application: Tetanic contraction
Sensation: Mild tingling
Use: For innervated muscle

Sinusoidal
Even, symmetric
Frequency: 50Hz
Pulse duration: 10ms
Application: Tetanic contraction
Sensation: Mild tingling
Use: For innervated muscle

27

Iontophoresis

Process of introducting medications (in the form of ions) to the body via electricity

28

Principles in iontophoresis

Like charges repel
Hydrolysis
Electrolysis
Ionization

29

Factors affecting ion transfer

Duration
Ion concentration
Current intensity

30

Anion medications

NaCl - for muscular adhesions/ connections
Salicylic acid - inflammation, pain, analgesia
Acetic acid - calcium deposits
Iodine - wounds and keloid scars
Dexamethasone - inflammation, pain
H2O - for iontophoresis
C (-caine) - pain
C (-cortisone) - inflammation