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Flashcards in Groups in Context Deck (43):

Description of Category A and B groups :
Category A:

Category B:

“Include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which...may hinder their full participation in society.”
United Nations convention on the rights of persons with disabilities

P Physical: E.g. Paralysis, cerebral palsy
I Intellectual: E.g. Down Syndrome
P Psychological: E.g. Depression, bipolar
S Sensory: E.g. Hearing or vision impairment

“A person is homeless if he/she has inadequate access to safe and secure housing.”
Supported Accommodation Assistance Act (1994)

Refers to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex communities. The term GLBTI emphasises a diversity of gender-identity-based cultures

Encompassess the years of adolescent growth, is a time when many young people are studying, training or planning for the future. (AMA- 10-24)


Exploring the four specific groups within the community
Prevalence of each group within the community

ABS 2009; 4 million people in Australia had a disability
2009; 18.5% of pop had a disability, whereas in 2003 it was 20%
6.6% of 15-24 year olds have a disability
40% of 65-69 year olds have a disability (Increases with age)
Due to ageing population, disabilities increase with age

1 in 200 people in Australia are homeless
2011→ 60% were under age 35
60%-70% had been homeless for more than 6 months
More than half of those seeking assistance from services are turned away
56% are men
Females; reported higher incidence of domestic or family violence
Difficult to estimate number; due to transient (constantly changing) nature of
Could be due to family breakdowns, domestic violence, financial problems, drug/alcohol problems, lack of emergency accommodation
Females and children generally given preference over males in accommodation

2011; 0.7% of couples were same sex
2006; 0.6%, and 1996; only 0.3%
More male same sex couples than females
2013→ 9% of high school students not attracted exclusively to opposite sex
May be higher numbers; but lack of national information
People are afraid to select in census (don’t want to be discriminated against)

20% of Australia’s population is made of youth (4.2 million)
51% are males, 49% are females
Estimated will account for less than 18% in 2020, due to fertility trends, lowered birth rate
Ageing population, low birth rate, parents waiting to have children, instead focus on careers


Individual diversity within each group

May have been born with or acquired a disability
P Physical: E.g. Paralysis, cerebral palsy
I Intellectual: E.g. Down Syndrome
P Psychological: E.g. Depression, bipolar
S Sensory: E.g. Hearing or vision impairment

May require a wheelchair, may require a carer
Come from any age group, gender, culture, socioeconomic status etc
E.g. Physical disability, who uses a wheelchair is different to someone with a psychological disability such as depression, which doesn’t physically limit them

All have inadequate access to safe housing,
All aren’t meeting specific needs of safety and security all the time
Different causes of homelessness; e.g. family breakdowns, financial problems etc
Diverse from society; Higher amount of drug/alcohol problems, generally lower education rate, lower health status
Different types of homelessness; E.g. may live in improvised dwellings; tents, sleeping bags etc, may live in shared accommodation, emergency shelter, sleeping on a friends couch
Temporary or permanent homelessness
Only thing in common is vulnerability
E.g. Difference between a man who is sleeping in improvised dwellings and a female and child who are living with a friend escaping from domestic violence, but still both are homeless

Diverse group; made up of people who identify as a different or no gender, or different sexualities or sexual orientations
Terms GLBTI exists to collectively describe different sexualities/genders, including gay, lesbian. bisexual, transgender & intersex
Part of community; if identify as gender diverse
Individuals vary→ as group comprises of different types of people, not everyone identifies as all the different sexualities etc
E.g. male who identifies as gay will belong, but differs from a female transitioning into a male also belonging to the group

(10-24) AMA
Encompasses period of adolescence
Different age categories→ may be older youth who have finished high school, or younger who are still in primary school
May be working full time/have part time job
All nationalities, socioeconomic backgrounds, genders etc
Youth may belong to other groups in community; E.g. GLBTI, homeless, disability
E.g. May be an 19 year old female with her own child, but is different to a 13 year old boy starting high school. But both belong to group of youth
Individuals vary due to schooling status, work status, have own children etc


Terminology used by the community to describe the group

Using words like ‘brave’ are patronising
Saying those without disability are ‘normal’ is offensive
Insensitive language can stereotype
Derogatory language impacts on emotional wellbeing and sense of security
Using terms such as person with a disability→ reflects understanding of person first, disability second
Positive terminology: Cognitive impairment, mental illness, uses a wheelchair
Negative terminology: Crazy, mentally retarded, crippled, wheelchair bound

Most have stereotypical view. E.g. single man, sleeps on street, dependent on drugs and unwashed
Society tends to generally not identify homeless women, children, families
There is no typical homeless person
Society view: Homelessness caused from bushfires (unfortunate), evicted from flat and are relying on centrelink (burden on society)
Positive terminology: Victim, displaced persons, the less fortunate
Negative terminology: Hobo, dirty, drug addict, ‘own fault’

Historically society is less tolerant of difference→ so terminology has connection of oppression linked to it
Attitudes have changed for the better→ greater understanding, acceptance
Term: Gay pride→ Encourages positivity, used to express community identity and strength
Positive terminology: Homeosexual, gender diverse, lesbian, gay etc
Negative terminology: Dyke/Lesbo, confused (some people refuse to accept gender diversity), gay if used in a derogatory way indicating ‘gay’ is associated with bad things

Adolescent is most common term used to describe the group
Youth use extensive vocab to define other youth; e.g. emo, geeks etc
Positive terminology: Teenager, adolescent, young person
Negative: Twelvies, spoilt, reckless, geeks, emos


Issues of concern for the four specific groups in the community
Satisfaction of needs
Specific needs of each group
- Safety and security

May be more vulnerable
May be abused by insensitive members of community
May be exploited financially/harmed physically by relatives, nursing home staff

Vulnerable group→ physical security limited
Streets/shelters→ little protection from others and environment
Isolated from family support structure (may be fleeing from families→ escaping violence)
Usually no place to store valuables/personal items
Environment→ can make them ill, targets of abuse and crime

Value safe and secure environment, free of discrimination, harassment, violence
Members of community; more likely to experience physical violence, discrimination, bullying etc
Victims of hate crimes, emotional violence (verbal abuse, hate mail etc)
Some deliberately isolate themselves at school or at work to protect themselves

Young who attend parties where drugs/alcohol are→ likely to experience violence, be attacked etc
Friends and family; provide support
Unrealistic media models→ can leave people disappointed if reality doesn't match what is portrayed
Financial security: high youth unemployment rates, jobs often part time or casual


Issues of concern for the four specific groups in the community
Satisfaction of needs
Specific needs of each group
- Health

Varying levels of health problems→ some experience further deterioration with age (E.g. motor neurone disease→ as it progresses, abilities may diminish)
Wheelchairs; may get pressure sores, weight gain, cardiac problems (due to limited activity)
Every person regardless of health level; needs regular GP checkups + dental/optical
May require specialist physician
Health care needs to be affordable and accessible
If can’t communicate→ problems can arise (E.g. in case of stroke/brain injury→ may need advocate to communicate needs to health professional)
Depression needs to be recognised and treated appropriately
If health needs aren’t met→ quality of life/life span affected

Health issues generally more severe than others
Health issues may cause homelessness→ worsen if left untreated
May have trouble accessing health services→ financial hardship, may not have medicare etc
Infections/mental illnesses→ common

Lack of GLBTI- sensitive medical care (individuals aren’t accessing appropriate services)
Individuals aren’t always comfortable discussing sexual and health issues in support groups
Cancer: Higher risk of cancers linked to alcohol and smoking, higher rates of anal cancer (gay)
Sexual health: Increased risk taking behaviours; STDs, viruses or HIV/AIDS
Obesity: Higher in lesbians than national average, higher cardiovascular and respiratory disease
Suicide prevention: Individuals have highest rates (14x higher in homosexuals) (6x higher in young homosexuals)
Mental health: Higher rates of depression, marginalisation, discrimination, violence against gender diverse→ affects mental health

Generally good health vs the aged→ but failure to address aspects of health→ impacts wellbeing
Risk takers→ injured in car accidents, risk health in unsafe sex practices, drug use
Travel overseas; require immunisation and advice on hazards (how to recognise unsafe water


Issues of concern for the four specific groups in the community
Satisfaction of needs
Specific needs of each group
- Education

Early intervention; (strategy to optimise development) → many need it to enhance physical, intellectual, living skills
Education about nature of disability, for person & carers (carers need to be aware of strategies to help them be as independent as possible
Schools; some offer life skills courses, transition to work

Stereotypically link homeless with lack of education (not always true) but hard to move beyond poverty without it
Many don’t have money for educational services
To succeed in independent living→ taught basic living skills (hygiene, looking after environment)
May need assistance for strategies to deal with drug/alcohol abuse
Volunteer services; provide opportunities to acquire skills to gain education (improves self esteem)

Schools implement diversity, anti discrimination and bullying policies→ intended to support/accept all (but young GLBTI may experience some difficulties)
Negative experiences; impact on ability to learn (don't perceive school as safe environment) → increased dropouts, lowered grades
Educate public; issues of homophobia, gender/sexuality diversity → decrease fear and ignorance

Usually in school, TAFE, university (those who leave to seek employment→ may have on the job training, learning skills etc)
Education preparing for employment
Positive experiences; contribute to self esteem, sense of identity.
Negative experiences; Develop negative view of abilities (emotional illbeing)
VET education→ enhances employment prospects, decreases time needed for post school studies


Issues of concern for the four specific groups in the community
Satisfaction of needs
Specific needs of each group
- Sense of Identity

Becoming disabled as adult; may experience more difficulties establishing renewed sense of identity
Community involvement improves sense of identity

Difficult to meet need→ (generally comes from involvement in work,family life, social activities)
Negative community interactions→ reinforce low self esteem/worth
Some community groups help achieve sense of identity→ E.g.Choir of hard knocks

Individuals may need time to come to terms with identity→ important they aren’t pressured into revealing gender identity or sexual orientation
Individuals who suppress gender identity and lose sight of sense of identity→ may experience depression,anxiety or feelings of sadness
If family/friends/religious groups aren’t supportive of diversity→ may feel socially isolated
GLBTI community: response to challenges faced by members(provides safety, belonging) → can protect mental health, help feel pride in own identity

Factors affecting; involvement in school, sport and academic activities, whether they have a job
Formation of relationship with other individual; can change sense of identity
Those with expertise (e.g. in dance, art) find it easier to develop positive sense of identity
Supportive family helps meet need
Leave school, may need to reshape identity→ structures previously restricted to them are no longer


Issues of concern for the four specific groups in the community
Satisfaction of needs
Specific needs of each group
- Employment

Many find it hard to secure permanent work (nature of disability, education, employers attitudes)
Jobs available in various areas (e.g. hospitality, administration etc) ongoing support may be needed
Some work for organisations supporting disabilities. E.g. Hearing impaired teachers working with hearing impaired children.

Most are unemployed
No employment; no income (hard to access basic necessities of life)
Negative factors affect change of gaining/maintaining employment→ low self esteem, lack of social skills, not presented appropriately, lack of basic work skills/education
May face discrimination in workplace→ unkempt appearance, hygiene
Sell Big Issue mag→ social interaction, employment, paid in cash, work own hours

Diversity doesn’t affect work performance (important they aren't treated differently)
Anti discrimination laws; prevent discrimination on basis of sexual/gender identity etc
Individuals may still experience harassment/ discrimination in workplace

Most aren’t working (still in school)
Those who leave before HSC→ difficult to obtain well paid full time work (involved mostly in entry-level jobs in retail, hospitality)
Some youth involved in volunteer work (fundraising, coaching) helps prepare or employment


Issues of concern for the four specific groups in the community
Satisfaction of needs
Specific needs of each group
- Adequate Standard of Living

Socioeconomic status affected (lowered workforce participation); may affect food choices
Clothing may need to be modified for independence; zips/buttons replaced by velcro, magnets
May live with family or independently→ housing needs to be near services.affordable
Some modifications to houses; E.g. Installing ramps, handrails in bathroom
Some types affect food choices/preparation. E.g. require specially processed if can’t swallow safely

Many isolate themselves→ not aware of services to assist them
Require access to services for accommodation and social support, services to address cause of homelessness. E.g. drug rehabilitation
Great demand on emergency housing→ reduces availability for those who need it most
Some forage for food in bins and rely on handouts→ not sustaining diet, leads to health problems
Important for clean clothing in good condition→ allows socialising, torn clothes; indicator of homelessness
Salvation army→ provides emergency accommodation,some organisations, serve food from vans
Women with kids→ often neglect own physiological needs so children’s are primarily met

Media; represents individuals as easily able to meet basic needs of food,clothing, shelter
More accurate picture; reveals diversity (members of community more likely to experience discrimination in employment→ narrow opportunities and lower wages
Young GLBTI→ could experience homelessness (if rejected by family) more likely to engage in drug/alcohol activity, risky behaviours etc
Family home important; offers safe environment where they can openly express who they are without fear of harassment or prejudice

Require nutritious foods (they are active).Often will make poor food choices out of convenience
Some develop eating disorders
Clothing choice→ affected by need to fit in with age group wearing certain styles and labels
Most live with parents, some live in boarding schools, homeless number increasing
As they get older; usually leave home and begin to meet own housing needs (may find it difficult to enter rental market due to negative attitudes of landlords to age group)
Increasing amount living in family home even when financially independent


Justify the TWO most significant needs for each group and discuss the implications if these are not met
- People with a Disability

Ill health→ impacts on sense of self, motivation levels, ability to complete activities
Long term health absence→ limits employment chances, impacts economic wellbeing
Social and intimate relationships impacted
Important; regular GP, dental check ups & disability is cared for appropriately
Health care needs to be easily accessible and affordable
Or quality of life/life span affected

Less opportunities to gain knowledge→ restricts people seeking support agencies to enhance or advocate for their needs
Low education level (+ disability) reduces employment opportunities
Education about how to care for disability is important for carers(improves wellbeing)
Without education→ social, emotional, economic (if no job) wellbeing affected


Justify the TWO most significant needs for each group and discuss the implications if these are not met
- Homeless people

Maslow→ health is primary need
Physical wellbeing→ well nourished, sleep well, health issues addressed
Attaining physical wellbeing improves emotional wellbeing, begins regaining status in community
Generally have severe health issues, can worsen if untreated→ issues must be addressed to maintain physical wellbeing
Needs not met; experience physical, emotional illbeing, possibility of emergency medical services (cost money generally homeless don’t have)

Physical wellbeing→ well nourished, clothed appropriately, area to sleep in relative comfort (improves emotional wellbeing)--> helps regain status in community
Generally no access to shelter, rely on food vans, bins, not dressed for conditions they live in→ causes physical, emotional, social illbeing
Affects sense of identity→ increases feeling of not belonging, decreases self esteem


Justify the TWO most significant needs for each group and discuss the implications if these are not met

Important to maintain healthy living and contribute to overall wellbeing
Health services need to be easily accessible and accepting of diversity
Higher rates of cancer, sexual diseases, obesity, suicide
If health needs aren’t met; can become ill, resulting in hospital or death

Important to feel accepted→ emotional wellbeing, sense of belonging, self esteem
Maintaining can be challenging→ especially when coming out to loved ones
Discrimination in society can negatively impact this need
Person needs to be comfortable with their identity and not be discriminated against
If needs not met: mental health problems, or drug/alcohol abuse→ negative for health


Justify the TWO most significant needs for each group and discuss the implications if these are not met
- Youth

Important during transition between childhood and adolescence
Need to feel valued, have a purpose and direction
Positive self concept→ when a young person has ability to initiate and maintain relationships and communicate effectively
If need isn’t met→ depression/other mental health problems may arise (further complicates young person’s life)

Important for rules and content designed to help young live in society
Increases access to services and resources, enhances confidence in seeking support
Contributes to positive sense of identity
If need isn’t met; employment opportunities are decreased and ability to meet other needs is reduced.


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Financial support,

Sickness Allowance; for short-term disability
Mobility Allowance; Assists with transport costs for those who can’t use public transport

Department of Human services; crisis payments, centrelink, rent deduction scheme
Many require fixed addresses; which homeless don’t have

GLBTI youth, disabled GLBTI individuals or homeless GLBTI individuals can access the services stated above
Many GLBTI individuals prefer to use the internet to access services, due to anonymity it provides

NSW Department of Fair Trading→ advises youth about financial aid and employment issues
Centrelink allowances


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Accomodation and Housing

Person may require modifications to their home (ramps, handrails in bathrooms etc)
May need accommodation with full or part time care.

Department of Housing→ short term accommodation for homeless people
Crisis Accommodation Program

Some landlords may be discriminate against GLBTI individuals in terms of renting etc
GLBTI house may be safe haven, free from discrimination

Most live at home with parents
Emergency shelters, emergency refuges→ exist in community


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Transport

Public transport→ accessibility standards enforced; designated seats, ramps, boarding devices
Private vehicles; disabled parking spots; wheelchair access

Unlikely people will use public transport due to discrimination from public, or unable to pay fare

May access Community Transport→ not for profit transport service
May use public transport, or private cars

Public transport concessions→ reduced costs


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Legal Aid

Free legal aid from Disability discrimination legal service
Australian centre for disability law→ protects rights

Homeless Person’s Legal Service→ free service to people who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless

LGBTI legal service→ not for profit organisation offer advice and legal support for GLBTI individuals

Legal Aid ACT, Lawstuff, legal aid websites→ provide free support and services for youth in need of aid or advice


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Education

Sign language specialist for deaf children in school
Braille technology for the blind at school

Father Chris Riley’s Youth off the streets:

Many GLBTI individuals prefer to use the internet to access services, due to anonymity it provides
May choose to unenrol from mainstream schooling if faced with discrimination and return in later years to complete pathways education

Compulsory education until end of Year 10
Educational ‘pathways’ allow youth to acquire training in prospective field of employment while still in school. E.g. ACU Step up to Nursing program run in the school holidays


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Employment

Disability employment services→ assist employment of people with disability

Mission Australia: Provide basic training programs that can help homeless people acquire skills to help obtain employment

Being a GLBTI individual doesn’t affect performance at work, but if discrimination occurs during work, individuals may need to access legal aid services

Job Services Australia→ Govt national employment services, provides skills, training and support to those under 21


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Counselling

Carers, nursing staff, professional mental health practitioners
MOIRA disability counselling→ works to meet specific needs

Can access mental health counselling, drug and alcohol clinics run by services such as Red Cross

Sydney Gay Counselling→ support for those who feel confused about their identity, how to work through relationship problems with friends and family etc

ReachOut→ support to youth with mental health problems
Youth off the Streets; assists homeless youth
Beyondblue, Kids Helpline etc


Access to services
Types of services (FAT LEECH)
- Healthcare

Type of service dependent on type of disability
E.g. Physiotherapy for person with nerve damage etc

NSW Health: Employ health workers who provide basic healthcare to homeless people in accommodation centres and on the streets

National LGBTI Health Alliance: provide health care services for GLBTI individuals

Department of Health: Vaccinations to all youth
Health Care Card: Low-income youth to access cheaper prescription medicines


Factors affecting access to services
Characteristics of individuals within the group, E.g. age, gender, level of education, culture, type of disability, first language spoken, socioeconomic status

- People with a disability

Both ends of lifespan→ may be carer dependent for assistance in accessing services (E.g. financial support, healthcare)
Some may be difficult to assist (immobility and factors related to age/size)

Disability from motor accidents→ more frequently (males) → greater compensation, rehabilitation available to men
Women→ fewer education opportunities, earn less, more likely to be institutionalised or exposed to violence

Education needed to manage disabilities
Intellectual disabilities→ learn to use mobiles, internet→ increases access to info, enhances communication
Young receive additional assistance at school and in TAFE (specialised teachers/classrooms)

Some community facilities cater to people from ethnic backgrounds

Type and degree of disability; significant in accessing services (long, short term, life threatening, uncomfortable etc)
Disability is diverse and so is range of support available

May affect familiarity/knowledge of services (confidence reduced when language barriers)
Many services have interpreters, written fact sheets in different languages)

Many have welfare support (limits access to private hospitals, occupational therapists etc)
Higher ses→ can buy specialised equipment (motorised wheelchairs etc) but those with low ses are on waiting lists
Lower ses: harder to participate in specialised activities, e.g.Paralympic games


Factors affecting access to services
Characteristics of individuals within the group, E.g. age, gender, level of education, culture, type of disability, first language spoken, socioeconomic status

- Homeless people

Affects all ages (2% are 75+) (17% children under 12)
Children might not know service exists, adolescent may think they are too young to seek housing assistance
Older homeless; may have age related health conditions prevents from accessing services

Create division according to gender (more support for women→ increased need to protect from domestic violence)
Emergency short and long term accommodation for both

Many have poor literacy/numeracy skills→ need programs to improve
Need education about accommodation, welfare groups, social programs available to them, or won’t know they are there

Cultural barriers→ may make fearful of govt agencies/welfare groups
Some find accommodation/services offered culturally inappropriate (gender, desegregation, food prep, prayer space)

Mental health issues→ difficulties accessing services→ barriers in communication
Many are discriminated against when seeking private rental accommodation
Physical disabilities→ affect ability to travel to certain places to access services

May affect familiarity/knowledge of services (confidence reduced when language barriers)
No interpreters, lack of cultural understanding, racism, discrimination→ affects access to service

Most don’t have income→ restricts ability to engage in consumer-driven society
Hard to seek govt support or employment if difficulties in providing form of identification (driver's license, passport


Factors affecting access to services
Characteristics of individuals within the group, E.g. age, gender, level of education, culture, type of disability, first language spoken, socioeconomic status


Young might not know about types of support (healthcare, counselling etc) or struggle with identity and sexuality→ fear rejection from family/friends (keep identity a secret→ harder to access resources) Some young find it exciting/liberating
Not previously consideration to older GLBTI community. Sex-Discrimination Amendment Act 2013→ now providers can’t turn away GLBTI clients due to sexuality, gender etc

All genders can access services; might mean disclosing info not previously shared; females more likely to than males
Service providers need to use gender neutral language to make GLBTI feel comfortable disclosing and addressing issues

Knowledge of diversity, support services, safe sex practices→ increase willingness to access resources improving wellbeing
Need to educate community→ ensure acceptance, support of GLBTI individuals accessing community resources

Acknowledging gender diversity brings ‘shame’ on family (leads to hiding sexuality from family)due to culture. Experiences lead to depression/anxiety→ reduce chance of accessing services

Some services don't identify and acknowledge variety of needs in addition to disabilities (don’t acknowledge GLBTI)
Most services only deal with disability→ reluctant to advise services that support GLBTI individuals

Interpreter may be needed; bilingual staff and client family/friends not enough→ may not be trained or familiar with legal/ethical issues (confidentiality), may not understand neutral role in interaction, might try to spare from bad news

Better ses→ more services available, may be better able to afford private health care, suitable transport, secure housing
Lower ses→ Less choice, rely on public healthcare, transport, financial govt assistance, counselling from charity groups.
Regardless of ses→ those who reach out to service; more likely to achieve wellbeing


Factors affecting access to services
Characteristics of individuals within the group, E.g. age, gender, level of education, culture, type of disability, first language spoken, socioeconomic status

- Youth

Age may prevent from having knowledge.
Many find age prevents from securing greater responsibility roles at work, having opinion respected, gaining adequate accommodation. → Not given opportunity to acquire skills

Men less likely to seek help when confronted with physical/mental health issues
Women feel intimidated if confronted by aggressive/humiliating behaviour→ less chance of seeking help from service

Low level of education→ low self esteem, lack of self worth→ discourages from accessing service
Many cases; education level linked to ability of obtaining employment

Some cultures; women don’t need to be educated→ lack of motivation to be educated stops young women accessing services
Absence of culturally appropriate assistance→ stop accessing services

May feel uncomfortable; discrimination still happens
Taunting language, negative body language, lack of appropriate disability access/facilities→ won’t access service

Language proficiency may prevent youth from obtaining employment; because of discrimination or low self esteem,

Some services unaffordable E.g. driving lessons, skiing lessons etc
Free services available; many still struggle, unable to leave employment to access service
Low ses→ low self esteem, embarrassed to ask help, depression.
Travelling to facilities→ inability to pay for transport


Resources,E.g. time, money, energy, knowledge
- People with a disability

Must have time to be transported to service (usually time consuming)

Some need expensive equipment (E.g. Beach wheelchair more expensive)
Allowances given, but income might not compare with full time employment

Varies on age and condition→ may affect decision to be involved in employment/education courses

Some can’t communicate→ some think lack of communication means lack of knowledge
Tech advances→ more opportunities to acquire knowledge (but specialised equipment expensive)
Difficulties accessing tech→ harder to find out about services in area


Resources,E.g. time, money, energy, knowledge
- Homeless people

Perceived as having lots of time→ irregular sleeping patterns during night may be unproductive
Time management poor→ lack of personal motivation
Service hours, meetings→ seem irrelevant as don’t have schedules or deadlines

No money→ no employment, no bank account, fear of being robbed
Limited money→ restricts access to services where fees are charged (Anxiety, low self esteem)

Limited diet (sometimes only 1 meal per day) → lack energy
Priority; maintain body temp, stamina→ won’t engage in unnecessary activity
Reduced energy levels, stamina→ unlikely to walk to services; more prone to illnesses

Likely to have lower education levels→ unlikely to know about services
May feel uncomfortable asking for help; so won’t ask about services available


Resources,E.g. time, money, energy, knowledge

Need to be able to attend regular support meetings or functions

Need to pay for public transport/petrol to attend appointments with counsellor/healthcare worker

Need energy to attend appointments with healthcare workers (E.g. If have depression)

Need knowledge of online searching; find out about safe sex practices (prevent STDs or HIV/AIDS)


Resources,E.g. time, money, energy, knowledge
- Youth

Many waste time (social media, TV/DVD, excessive sleeping on weekends)
Some totally engrossed in study or sport→ don’t explore services available to them

If activity is expensive→ limits participation
Youth who live at home/paying job→ access to services less restricted
Youth who lack money→ limits housing, health, food, education options and ability to get to service
Immediate need of food; more important than transport to visit service

Lots of energy→ but many passive in leisure time; low motivation linked to low energy
Companions needed to accompany→ limits opportunities available
Some are isolated due to belief/value system (impacts sense of identity & desire to access services)

Unaware of location/existence→ unable to use service
Knowledge linked to education→ may not fully understand eligibility for assistance and don’t apply


Aspects of the service, E.g. opening hours, confidentiality, location, staffing

Opening hours:
Rely on assistance with toileting, dressing, feeding, medication→ may limit time to access service

Have rights to access service without disclosing unnecessary personal info and confidentiality

Provision of accessible parking spots?
Rural areas→ may have to travel to access service

Staff need to be trained to offer support (many people with disabilities require assistance with paperwork, ad meeting govt requirements)

Opening hours:
Need night services (safety is issue as in day; sleep or looking for food)

May be embarrassed to seek assistance or feel security is threatened if details are recorded

Some have limited transport options (no money for public transport)

Staff may be unsympathetic, poorly trained, cultural barriers, prejudiced etc

Opening hours:
Some open 24/7 (online chat rooms) some permanent hours

Prefer online/anonymity→ fear being ‘outed’

If easily accessible, one less barrier

All staff need to be understanding and sensitive to needs of the group

Opening hours:
Generally full time study/work→ access to services in business hours is difficult

Critical to feel safe and secure, need to feel comfortable, (E.g.when talking to counsellors)

As young people are less likely to own transport, services need to be located close to public transport

Staff needs to be supportive, need to be attentive and not patronising


Researching TWO community groups (Two groups selected and studied from category B)
Creating positive social environments
Addressing the group’s issues of concern
- Government policy and legislation

Government policies and legislation and organisations that support the group→ create positive social environment
Govt policy and legislation→ regulate, create equality and protect human rights
Policy→ Beliefs/Ideology of govt
Legislation→ Laws that exist in order to apply the policy
Non discrimination and equality should be visible in all aspects of the law

E.g. Youth: Education Amendment Bill: School attendance legal and compulsory until 17, person is in training or works

E.g. GLBTI:Anti-Discrimination Act 1997: Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, homosexuality, transgender status, age is prohibited


Organisations within the community that support the group

Services online or physical→ sense of belonging as people their age know what they are going through
The way youth access these resources→ depends on factors that affect access to services

Kids Helpline
24/7 → easily accessible, adolescent friendly.
Helps youth with info about bullying, suicide prevention, parent separation, sexuality
Improves emotional wellbeing, raises self esteem, sense of belonging

Youth can meet needs through payments
Allow socioeconomic imbalance to be addressed→ economic wellbeing improved
Can achieve specific needs; food, clothing etc→ adequate standard of living needs satisfied

Individuals may require specific support for ‘coming out’ to friends/family or if discrimination
Whilst there are a range of online services, GLBTI individuals in rural and remote areas experience difficulties in accessing appropriate services.

Parents and Friends of Lesbians And Gays→ help, support and info to families and friends of gay people
Sense of identity→ many GLBTI individuals struggle with their gender or sexual identity and coming out to their friends/family
Organisation helps families work together to accept one another→ provides info, support
Helps families be more understanding, accepting of diversity→ improves emotional, social wellbeing, sense of belonging and strong self esteem


Equity issues
- Equity refers to fairness and justice

Universal Declaration on Human Rights: Advocates the rights of youth are the same as the rights given to all other individuals
Human rights are universal and are to be enjoyed by all people, regardless of who they are or where they live; however, youth often face inequalities in following areas;
Socioeconomic inequity (many youth are dependent on adults for financial security or are low paid, often part time employment
Social inequity (social stigma and negative stereotypes; e.g. Youth are referred to as ‘Gen Y’ and too busy on the internet to contribute positively to society)
Political inequity (Many not old enough to vote and often have no say in political decision making)
Geographical (rural youth are at disadvantage in terms of education, employment and social support)
Educational inequity (Particularly the case for socioeconomically disadvantaged and rural youth)
Discrimination (on the grounds of racial, age, sexual and gender issues
Unequal access to resources such as employment, accommodation, transport and health
In order to address some inequities, a management strategy or action plan, needs to be developed; Can be using existing laws or proposing a change o existing laws, or creation of a new policy or additional government funding to address a need
Sometimes when addressing inequities, conflict with other groups or competing financial resources occurs; comes about due to differing beliefs, values or standards
E.g. Government can address socioeconomic inequities by providing easier access to youth homeless payments without need for passports, identification they may not have etc

Equity issues need to be addressed to create more equal social environment
Meeting needs (SHESEA)
Access to services (FAT LEECH)
Health care (physical, emotional, mental)
Right to equal employment opportunities
Privacy and confidentiality
Freedom from discrimination, stigma, harassment, and physical violence
The legal right to marry (recognition of same-sex relationships by the law and society)
E.g. Inequity that same-sex marriage isn’t legal or sanctioned in Australia. It was legal for 2 months, but then legally overturned and all marriages that had occurred were annulled.

Many young GLBTI individuals face harassment and abuse for their gender identity
Discrimination may be obvious (refused entry to nightclub) or subtle (referring to something disliked as gay)
Repeated discrimination→ stress, anxiety, depression
Anti- discrimination laws in place but shouldn’t be needed

Violence and harassment:
Some use violence/intimidation to hurt/insult GLBTI
Often due to own fears or lack of understanding of diversity
Violence, bullying,harassment can occur in school, workplace, social settings→ experience isolation, threatened, low self esteem, suicide

Health issues:
Often unsafe sexual behaviour (STDs, HIV)
Higher incidence of HIV in gay community→ prejudiced against
Successful intervention.prevention programs→ counselling, education, medical treatment


Examine government policy and legislation to determine its role in ensuring equity for each group

Education Amendment Bill
School attendance legal and compulsory until 17, person is in training or works
Policy improves better employment chances and better wages→ stay in school

Youth Allowance and Abstudy
Payments help socioeconomic and education inequity
Economic Support while completing studies→ stay in school

Concession Cards
Cheaper travel on public transport/discount rates at movies
Improve inequities from socioeconomic disadvantages→ improves community participation

Anti-Discrimination Act 1997
Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, homosexuality, transgender status, age is prohibited
Ensures GLBTI individuals can’t be discriminated against in accessing employment, education, accessing services (FAT LEECH) in the community
Under this act, a GLBTI individual can’t be denied the opportunity to fully engage in the community

Sex Discrimination Amendment Act 2013
Discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people is illegal
Recognises importance to treat people with respect and without discrimination regardless of identity
Promotes equality→ everyone is treated fairly and without prejudice or harassment
Increases sense of belonging within community→ people won't discriminate and harass (harms emotional and social wellbeing of GLBTI people)


Critically analyse the extent to which organisations within the community assist in satisfying the needs of each group

Kids Helpline
24/7 → easily accessible, adolescent friendly.
Helps youth with info about bullying, suicide prevention, parent separation, sexuality
Improves emotional wellbeing, raises self esteem, sense of belonging

Youth can meet needs through payments
Allow socioeconomic imbalance to be addressed→ economic wellbeing improved
Can achieve specific needs; food, clothing etc→ adequate standard of living needs satisfied

Youth Allowance
Parental means and personal income tested→ allows youth to study full time, complete apprenticeship, move away from home if in difficult situations
Improves sense of identity, economic and emotional wellbeing

Parents and Friends of Lesbians And Gays→ help, support and info to families and friends of gay people
Sense of identity→ many GLBTI individuals struggle with their gender or sexual identity and coming out to their friends/family
Organisation helps families work together to accept one another→ provides info, support
Helps families be more understanding, accepting of diversity→ improves emotional, social wellbeing, sense of belonging and strong self esteem

Counselling, support agencies, accommodation to GLBTI community and their families
Adequate standard of living, safety and security→ if GLBTI individual is unable to live at home accomodation provide shelter, protects the individual
Counselling, support services→ sense of identity; families can be educated to be inclusive of gender diversity, maintaining relationship with GLBTI family member

Beyond Blue (GLBTI)
Online/phone support services, and info helping GLBTI people struggling with their identity or ‘coming out’
Sense of identity→ recognise gender diversity should be celebrated. Acceptance and support services help individuals cope and be proud of who they are
Education→ how to cope with issues faced regarding coming out or transitioning→ helps individuals learn what they need to do in order to live in positive environment
Health→ Mental health issues are addressed, how to seek help for mental illness


Investigate a current inequity issues faced by each group and propose strategies to address the issue

Age discrimination: In the workforce, your age determines your pay. Younger youth receive less pay for completing the same tasks as older youth.
STRATEGIES: Universal base pay. Specific amounts for everyone regardless of age. E.g. Everyone receives $15 an hour

No same sex marriage→ lobby to govt etc


Positive influences on community attitudes
Contributions the group makes within the community

Youth volunteer around the community. E.g. Referring sporting matches, feeding homeless, reading at nursing homes.
Can be loving family members→ help around the house, babysit younger siblings etc
Go to school→ be educated, succeed in world→ make positive contributions to community
May be role models, volunteers. E.g. Youth group leaders, scouts
Youth are technologically advanced→ willing to share knowledge in new advances (internet, phones)
May be involved in community organisations. E.g. SES, St John Ambulance

Promote human rights and greater acceptance of individual differences (E.g. Wear It Purple Day in response to suicides brought about by bullying)
Willingness to challenge conservative opinions, attitudes towards sexuality
Advocating for safe sex practices
Contribution to arts community→ art as device for social change,expressing feelings, building resilience and understandings (graphics, drama, dance)
Proactive organisation and support of community based support services→ members generate greater understandings of issues
Financial contributions to economy→ Higher income sometimes provides significant funds to local, state, economies. E.g. Sydney Mardi Gras provides huge tourist income


Explore ONE example of what each group has done to try to improve community attitudes and assess the impact this has had on the wellbeing of the group

Challenges negative stigma surrounding youth and allows community to see youth interacting and helping others.
Shows initiative, independence and youth as role models.
Youth making difference in the community, helping others
E.g. Youth volunteering for the Vinnies van, delivering food and hot drinks to homeless people. Volunteering late at night to help others. Handing out blankets etc and improving the physical and emotional wellbeing of homeless people. Social wellbeing improves as volunteers listen to the homeless people’s stories.
Community attitudes positively improved as can see youth helping others.

Mardi- Gras:
Influences economic wellbeing of community→ opportunities for local businesses and shopkeepers to gain income from increased pop staying for festival
Popularity means more people in area→ increased expenditure,benefits local businesses and shops
Tourist attraction→ economic wellbeing of community and benefits GLBTI individuals→ community is grateful for increased income & so will continue to support the Mardi Gras


Advocacy (Speaking up for the groups needs and concerns

Advocacy; Speaking up for human rights,drawing attention tos specific needs and concerns
Effective advocacy→ lobbying, public education, raising awareness, engaging media to publicise issues of concern
E.g. Advocating for same sex marriage→ lobbying politicians to promote marriage equality, ensuring media publicise issue and draw attention to current inequity


Raising awareness within the community

Youth do great work that goes unrecognised→ society focuses on negative actions
Youth achievements need to be recognised→ wellbeing is positively influenced
Schools promote initiatives for and by youth
Organisations, organise community awareness programs, activities for youth and broader community. E.g. Headspace
E.g. 2014 Young Australian of the Year (Jacqueline Freney)
Paralympian swimmer→ raises awareness of spirit of youth
Shows with hard work and determination, anything is possible

Many who work to raise awareness, done to:
Raise GLBTI visibility and raise awareness of issues/injustices
Mobilise GLBTI population→ increases GLBTI community voice
Fight for human rights
Build support from general pop


Educating the community

Often negative aspects of youth behaviour→ catches media attention
Profiling collective and individual achievements→ generates heightened understanding in community
Newspapers, promotion of activities, youth events→ educate community
Informal networks→ inform local and wider community of events in which youth are immersed
Local organisations that provide services, work with youth→ strong advocates of clients and educate community

Providing education→ beneficial to human rights, and is targeted at enhancing wellbeing of GLBTI individuals, family, friends and colleagues
Reducing homophobia (anti-gay prejudice) and aim of zero tolerance of GLBTI harassment, discrimination and physical violence→ enhances individual and community wellbeing
E.g. Sydney Mardi Gras
Community organisation→ raises awareness and visibility of GLBTI community
Variety of events, culminating in popular Mardi Gras parade
Aus police provide education→ support programs, trained gay and lesbian liaison officers. March every year in parade to show support and enhance relationship with police & GLBTI community


Promoting the rights of the group

Rights protect against injustice, help reach individual’s potential and contribute to wellbeing
Rights involve legal and moral responsibilities and have become laws in society
E.g. Working with Children Checks
Assists organisations to develop policies, procedures to keep children and adolescents safe
Protects youth in out of home care environments (Fostering, adopting)
Required for teaching, coaching, employing youth→ allows for safety to be accounted for, so no one faces discrimination or abuse

Protect against injustice, enable to reach potential and contribute to wellbeing
Legal and moral responsibilities and have become laws in society
No special rights specific to GLBTI individuals
But United Nations Human Rights Charter→ ensures GLBTI individuals receive same protection against discrimination and right to equality as everyone else