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Flashcards in Parenting and Caring Deck (22)
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Types of parents and carers

Has responsibility of raising and nurturing a child, promotes their development within the family
Biological parents; Contribute genetic material (sexual intercourse or Assisted Reproductive Technologies)

Looks after the needs and wellbeing of a dependent;provides services they may not be able to do themselves
Social parents; Parental responsibility for child they don't share a genetic relationship with.


Describe the different types of parents and carers

Adoptive (social)
All legal rights/responsibilities transferred from birth parents to adoptive parents
Permanent care for children unable to live with birth families

Foster (social)
Alternative living arrangements for those with parents temporarily unable to care for them
Caregivers paid fortnightly allowance to meet needs of child
Children placed in care if at risk from domestic violence, physical or emotional needs not being met

Step-parenting (social)
Man/Woman marries or forms de-facto relationship with parenter who has child
Not biological parent; but treats child as a member of the family

Surrogacy (social)
Arrangement between couple who can’t have baby and woman who becomes pregnant on their behalf
Surrogate can’t be paid, but adoptive parents generally cover all medical expenses
Adoptive parents must apply to adopt to be listed on birth certificate; then have same legal rights as biological parent


Explore the impact of legal social and technological change on social parents by considering changes in:
- Legislation,
- Community beliefs and attitudes,
- Reproductive technologies

All legal rights/responsibilities transferred to adoptive parents; child receives amended birth certificate
If child is over 12→ must consent to adoption
Child name changes
Requires consent of both biological parents

Community beliefs and attitudes
More socially acceptable thanks to celebrities (E.g hugh Jackman, Angelina Jolie)
Social acceptance of gay/lesbians→ more adoptions
More older parents having children→ less adoptions
Aboriginal children not usually adopted into non-indigenous families; placed in kinship groups

Reproductive Technologies
Those undertaking fertility treatments; not eligible to adopt
Improvements in contraception; Less children to adopt
Health conditions of birth parents made available→ health conditions can be researched

Carer allowances
Minimum standards for accreditation
Cannot make medical decisions or undertake legal proceedings on behalf of child
Must consult with Family and Community services about schooling, faith practices

Community beliefs and attitudes
More socially accepted;families feel like giving back to the community
Misconception that people foster for the money
Issues may arise with contact of child's birth parents; clashes

Reproductive Technologies
Advancements in reproductive tech; Decrease in number of children put up or adoption→ decrease in children placed with foster families

No legal responsibility
Medical authorities may consult stepparent if neither biological parent is available
Childs name may be changed to step-parents; if approval from non-custodial parent

Community beliefs and attitudes
Common; Increased divorce/remarriage rates
Conflict if traditions clash; especially older children
Rules set by stepparent may cause stress or tension
Community perception; Intact original nuclear family is superior to any blended family

Reproductive Technology
Issues may arise for remarried couples trying to conceive a child; may need to turn to tech (especially older couples)

Commercial surrogacy illegal→ Jail time, High fines
WA and SA→ same sex or single people banned from surrogacy

Community beliefs and attitudes
Rights of each party aren’t clear; specific criteria needs to be established based on honour agreement (not legally binding)
Controversial→ many religions still against any form of intervention

Reproductive Technology
Some choose to freeze eggs in hope they will find suitable partner; if natural contraception not achieved; frozen eggs used instead



ABS; Provides informal assistance to a person with one or more disability or is aged over 60+

Any person who gives regular ongoing assistance to another without payment
E.g. Grandparent who picks child up from school and looks after her until her parents come from work
Young carers; Young people who care and support family members with long term physical illness

Trained professionals; provide care through formal agencies paid for by receiver.
E.g. Nurse, Aged-care worker, High school teacher


Examine current research data on primary carers to determine the:
Significance of age and gender

Women make up 70% of primary carers of people with a disability (ABS). Traditionally over-represented in caring, nurturing and caring role
Gap between male and female income→ If a choice between who stays in the workforce; more likely to be higher income earner
36-64 age group continues to provide most primary care for individuals across Australia→ due to Australia’s ageing pop and number of grandparent carers
Youth carers may be able to have more energy/ time than older people who are balancing work, family and caring


Reasons for carers taking on the role. E.g. Emotional obligation, alternative care too costly

Most common reason; sense of family responsibility (63%)
Felt they could provide better care than anyone else (50%) and the feeling emotional obligation to take on the role (41%)
Most likely that no other friends or family able to take on the caring role
Annual value of informal care is 1.32 billion hours per year→ If paid care that would equal $40 billion dollars→ alternative care is very expensive


The roles of parents and carers
Satisfying the specific needs of the dependent

Adequate standard of living
Provide children with food, clothing, shelter
Nutritious food, appropriate to development stage and energy output of child
Regularly laundered clothing and safe housing

Safety and security
Shelter, show child understanding, love and support
Consistency and routines; assist child to develop security

Food, clothing, hygiene practices
Administer basic first aid and engage services of medical personnel

Encouraging play, language and literature acquisition

Sense of Identity
Consistent love, support given→ strong sense of belonging, self-esteem


Building a positive relationship with the dependent

Occur from birth through love, bonding, affection, understanding and patience
Parents should prioritise time with their child and showing genuine interest in their activities
Children of any age need to feel valued and affirmed
Children should develop self-discipline and maturity through taking on age- appropriate responsibilities→ parents need to model appropriate behaviour (skills are ‘caught not taught’)
Carers best help by providing assistance when needed but still allows opportunities for independence
Person being cared for should be treated with care and respect (E.g. speaking to dependent at eye level and using appropriate care)
May be difficult if carer cares for spouse or partner; roles change and so do responsibilities and relationship


Promoting the wellbeing of the dependent

Meeting the specific needs of the dependent or child will enhance overall wellbeing.
Ensuring that the dependent is treated with care and respect will positively influence emotional wellbeing and increase self esteem.
Appropriately caring for the dependent ensures that physical wellbeing is enhanced and maintaining a positive relationship with the dependent or child increases social and emotional wellbeing.
In meeting the specific needs and ensuring the individuals is well cared for, wellbeing will be positively increased.
For example, a carer may positively promote the social wellbeing of an aged relative by taking them to the theatre or the park, which allows them to interact with others.


Preparations for becoming a parent or carer (COME ON)

Maintain healthy balanced diet, drink plenty of water
When pregnant; Increase folic acid intake, don’t drink alcohol, coffee or smoke
Regular exercise and 7-8 hours of sleep
Regular GP appointments
Attending prenatal classes; meet with others in same situation

Eat variety of fresh, nutritious foods→ make them available to dependent when appropriate
Engaging in variety of physical activities to assist in maintaining healthy lifestyle and carrying out activities such as playing, lifting, showering and bathing
Investigating local support groups, in order to interact with other carers in similar situation
Meeting with other carers to gain more exposure to the role

Includes budgeting, saving and setting up support payments
Parents need to be prepared for potential costs of hospitals, obstetricians, medical expenses, clothing nappies and equipment
Carers may need to put aside money for modifying the home, education and training or specialized equipment
Parents and carers may need to save up to help them when they are off work caring for the dependent→ may be used for mortgage, bills or buying food
High costs of caring mean that some support payments may be provided by the government, including parental leave pay, carer allowance, carer payment and family tax benefit.

Assessment of current housing may need to occur to determine suitability for future dependents
E.g. A childless couple who live in a one bedroom flat and who are planning to adopt a child, may need to move to a house with two bedrooms.
Carers may need to consider the living arrangements of the family to care for the dependent.
E.g A family who are going to take care of their grandfather who uses a wheelchair, may need to ensure that hallways and paths are clutter free and items on the floor may need to be moved.
Play areas may be installed for babies and non slip mats, handrails and ramps installed for older dependents.

Prenatal/postnatal classes, online courses, midwives
Info from reliable parenting books, magazines, websites
Aware of social media→ often provide inaccurate, unprofessional parenting advice

Informal carers may take part in online courses or workshops to help with caring for their dependent
Many carer support services have online or face to face workshops on variety of topics and issues
Universities have degrees in nursing, early childhood, education, medicine, and TAFE has courses in children’s services, enrolled nursing and aged care.
Govt organisations (E.g. Family and Community Services) offer education and training


Characteristics of the dependent (ASS)
Age, Skills/capabilities, Special needs, E.g. Illness, disability

Age of dependent; will determine specific needs
No matter age; positive relationship should be worked towards
Promoting wellbeing through meeting needs; needs change through lifespan

Skills/capabilities will influence parent/carer roles
Some cases; person with disability may need assistance with bathing, feeding → may never be independent

Special Needs
Dependents may require more physical and emotional support in everyday activities
Difficulties in communication may impact on ability to build positive relationships


Influences on parents and carers
Personal (CROPMESS)
- Culture, customs, tradition,
- Religion/spirituality,
- Own upbringing,
- Previous experiences,
- Multiple commitments. E.g. Work, study, sport, family,
- Education,
- Socioeconomic status,
- Special needs. E.g. Illness, disability

Sharing cultural beliefs and customs can promote bonding (families celebrate rituals and participate in festivals together)
In multicultural society, conflict may occur in relationships when the cultural norms of the parents are different from those of the society in which they live
The culture, customs and traditions of both the carer and dependent need to be respected and valued

Generally parents try to pass on their faith practices or delegate this to a school with a religious ethos; if young person chooses to follow an alternative path to the one modelled by his/her parents→ may be difficult for both
Carers need to respect the religion and values of their dependents→ includes being observant of their faith and not compromising their way of life
Spiritual practices taken on by the parent, carer and/or dependent may or may not be shared→ essential that all parties respect, and are open about, the practices that are expressed

The way in which people are raised will undoubtedly influence the way they parent
If a person is positive about family life/shared family experiences→ likely to try and repeat experience for own children
Negative experiences in family life may lead parent to adopt other goals/values to create a different experience→ so child can have better opportunity than parents did

Parenting/caring may be modified→ evolving practices or experiences
E.g after first child is raised, parents will have had learning experiences that impact on the parenting of future children
E.g. After caring for a parent with dementia, a person may be calmer and more aware in caring for another person with that problem

Many roles that have different obligations and responsibilities→ amount of energy and time these pursuits take can affect the quality of relationships with dependents
Parents and carers need to develop management skills so that they can meet the responsibilities expectations of multiple roles (E.g. Setting and prioritising goals, establishing routines, seeking support)
A carer with multiple roles may engage more formal support for the dependents(e.g. community transport, home care etc)

Education enhances skills/knowledge of parents and carers to they understand or be better able to deal with daily interactions that are part of parenting and caring relationships→ educated parent/carer more likely to be aware of support services available and use them
Parents are children’s first teachers and early learning taking place in child's first years can make a difference in development of literacy and numeracy skills
If a carer is formally qualified or has had experience in care→ dependent usually receives higher quality of care than if no experience or education

50% of primary carers are low income→ may find it hard to cover living expenses, save money or build up superannuation→ reduces capacity to access private nurses
Person from high income family may put their dependent in a nursing home→ may lead to resentment form dependent as there is less involvement by family members in their care
High Income families may send their child to boarding school which weakens the quality of the relationship or uses nannies to look after the children.
Activities that improve communication may be low cost such as bushwalking, bowling etc and may be more effective in building bond than lavishing children with gifts

Parenting or caring role may be enhanced due to close bond that develops when carers and their dependents spend quality time together
Relationship between parent/carer and dependent may be more difficult at times due to ineffective communication, demands on time due to frequent medical attention. Stress in the relationship can also occur due to the need for dependency
Often support networks supplement role of parents and carers so that optimum relationships are maintained (E.g. Provision of special schools, community support-home care)


Social (CGM)
Community attitudes, Gender expectations, Media stereotypes

Community attitudes
Reflect prevailing norms of people within certain areas→ may include prescribed behaviours, dress standards, education methods, acceptable activities
Families who don't conform or who are unaware may face opposition and questioning by others. E.g. Parents who choose to homeschool children→ may will question decision
E.g. Vaccination→ hostility between parents who hold different opinions. Or when appropriate to cease breastfeeding

Gender expectations
Socialisation→ people of different genders behave distinctively and reflected in ways parent and carer's role carried out. Child's concept of being male or female develops from observing and modelling parents behaviour
Expectations parents have of their children will influence interaction with them. Traditionally males are breadwinners and women are nurturing, caring, household
Carers many are female, growing number of male carers but women demanded more as associated with nurturing role
Today parents generally share roles and more flexibility for working mothers and “house husbands”

Media stereotypes
Individuals exposed to behaviours and opinions expressed on tv, radio, Internet, magazines, advertisement images. E.g. Tv still portrays women in roles of housewife and males as breadwinners
Often messages are subtle. Sometimes messages challenge acceptable individual values and may have negative impact. Sometimes have positive impact if compatible with individual values
Media enabled carers and dependent to find out more about financial support, advocacy, respite→ leads to carers performing roles more effectively and enhances relationship with dependants.


Styles of parenting or caring (ADPIN)
Authoritarian, Democratic, Permissive/indulgent, Negligent

Explore each parenting or caring style and assess the impact it can have on the roles of parents and carers

Demanding, inflexible parent or carer who usually has preconceived goals to achieve
Expects obedience, dependents have little input into decisions that may affect them
Can result in dependent becoming resentful and distant.
May not promote wellbeing of depend as dependent unable to become independent
E.g. Positive in some situations, for example if house is on fire

Invites all members to have a say in decisions
Dependents feel appreciated, more likely to build respectful, positive relationship as time spent together is valued
Wellbeing of both parent/carer and dependent is enhanced when there is effective communication

Excessive leniency→ dependent ask permission to be involved in an activity and parent/carer likely to agree
Dependent may get their way and lack respect for parent/carer due to opposition to setting rules for dependent to follow
With few limits set, may feel parents don't care about them
May lead to poor wellbeing as dependent may engage in high risk behaviour → safety and security not met

May be physical when insufficient food is available (may be due to gambling, substance issues) May not have suitable clothing or hygiene needs met
Emotional may be lack of warmth, affirmation and physical affection
Negligence in supervision has resulted in tragedies from not keeping dependents under watchful eye
Parents/carers responsible for meeting needs and needs aren't met with negligent parenting or caring
Dependents wellbeing not promoted, may be malnourished, unhealthy
Poor quality relationship as dependent doesn't feel loved and protected


Rights and responsibilities in parenting and caring
Legal rights of parents, carers and dependants
- A right is an entitlement

Family Law Act (1975) → parents have right to discipline child
Ensure access to education
Legal proceedings on child’s behalf

Have right to be recognised and acknowledged in their role and receive financial assistance
Be covered under the Anti-Discrimination Act

Child has the right to make their own decisions and over the age of 14 can made their own legal decisions
Dependents have the right to participate in decisions affecting their life, be protected from neglect and abuse, adequate care, compassion and understanding


Responsibilities of parents and carers
Duty of care, Setting limits, Discipline

A responsibility is a duty or obligation
Parents and carers have responsibility to develop skills, secure a safe environment. Establish and maintain communication patterns. Listen to and value the dependents contributions. Ensure medicine administered

Duty of care
Parents and carers must meet needs of the dependent
Parents of compulsory school-aged children have duty to cause the child to be enrolled at school, or be registered for home schooling
Duty of care can be transferred (parent placing child in childcare centre, or child going to school)

Setting limits
Dependents have right to firm guidelines and limits, allows them to
Know what is right and expected of them, Know how far they can go, Learn about fairness, Respect others, Foster their self esteem
Limits set by parents may conflict with opinions/views of dependent

Important rules should be established and reasons for should be discussed with the dependent
Dependent should be aware of fair and reasonable consequences for breaking rules
Praised when rules are followed
Consistently, assertively and calmly follow through with consequences when rules are broken
Change rules and expectations as dependent grows older


Types of support
Relatives, friends, relationships

Parenting role is increasingly shared between partners (due to extensive changes in society, such as growth in female workplace participation during childbearing years)
Fathers are spending more time with children
Constant support of immediate family members means a parent or carer can fulfil roles with ease. E.g. Parent may ask their sibling to spend a day with the dependent, so they can have some respite.
Adolescents frequently take on responsibility for younger siblings (babysitting, cooking, transport etc) → gives parents more time to manage additional roles
Grandparents and grandchildren that have affection and interest in each other→ emotional wellbeing improves and ability to give and receive affection improved
Grandparents→ assist in child care and pass on family cultures, traditions and help provide social, economic and emotional support

Spending time with friends may provide respite for a parent or carer, which improves their wellbeing
May look after a dependent child if the parent needs to go to a doctor's appointment.

May provide informal support by picking up the dependent child of their neighbour, if the parent is running late from work.


Government agencies, Community organisations

Government agencies
Government funded and administered groups
E.g. Centrelink→ Financial support→ government payments to help support dependents needs etc

Community Organisations
Community organisations include welfare or charity groups. These may be funded by Governments but they are not considered government agencies.
E.g. St Vincent de Paul→ Help disadvantaged families and may provide carers or parents with financial support or counselling that will increase emotional or economic wellbeing


Explain how different types of support can assist parents and carers to:
Prepare for their roles, Fulfil their responsibilities, Maintain their own wellbeing

Promoting the wellbeing of the dependent refers to meeting the needs of the child and developing a positive relationship with them.
However, sometimes a parent may find it difficult to satisfy all factors affecting wellbeing.
For example, a first time parent may find it challenging to satisfy their child's physical wellbeing, if the child has physical disabilities that means they can’t walk. Calling parent line allows the parent to gain support and advice from trained professionals, which may include tips on how to better satisfy the physical wellbeing of the child, such as engaging in a sports academy for children with a disability.

Additionally parents roles include building and maintaining a positive relationship with the dependent.
This may be difficult as, as children age, their relationship with their parents change as well.
Parentline provides parents with the tools to work out how to effectively maintain positive relationships with dependents, despite their changing needs
Parents also have to satisfy the specific needs of the dependent, especially in regards to adequate standard of living, health, safety and security and sense of identity.
Parents may sometimes find it difficult to satisfy the specific needs of the dependent at all times, and may find that in talking to a parentline counselor, they can gain expert opinion and advice on how to manage any conflicting information they have received, and their own personal views.

Parents may find it difficult to know how to set limits with their child, and may question whether they are too lenient, or too unreasonable when enforcing this responsibility.
A parent may phone parentline for advice on whether their set limit for their child is too harsh.
Parentline assists parents in maintaining this responsibility by confirming whether practices already in place are effective, or if they should be changed to ensure the wellbeing of the child.
Similarly, parents may call parentline counsellors to discuss their discipline measures, if their child breaks the limits set by them. If a child repeatedly breaks the rules and does not heed warnings, parentline counsellors may be able to suggest resources to implement tougher discipline measures.
Parents also have the responsibility of duty of care for their children, involving maintaining the child's overall wellbeing and ensuring their welfare is met. Parents also have a duty of care to ensure their dependent receives education.
Choosing the right school to go to, or deciding whether the dependent will be homeschooled can be difficult, → talk to counsellors for advice

May sometimes feel overwhelmed in their role as a parent, neglect own wellbeing.
Parentline allows parents to talk to trained professionals about their worries or concerns, or ask questions in a format where they won’t be judged.
Parent receives advice or information about how to solve any challenging behaviour or situations arising from the dependent.
Speaking to trained professionals allows parents to gain comfort and influence their self esteem in making the best decisions regarding their child.
If parents become stressed, their own spiritual and emotional wellbeing is negatively impacted upon, and the parent may even experience physical illbeing


Types of support provided through formal support
- Health care,
- Education,
- Financial support,
- Child Care,
- Respite care,
- Counselling


- Health care,
Child and Family Health Nursing Service.
Government agency
Clinic appointments or home visiting of children aged 0-5 and their families to assess and monitor physical development and health.

- Education,
Community organisation
Centre based support services assisting parents with skills and knowledge in the child’s early years.

- Financial support,
Parenting Payment.
Government agency
Income support to assist with costs of raising children

- Child Care,
Scribbles and Giggles Childcare Centre.
Community organisation
24 hour childcare services for babies to preschool age children

- Respite care,
Flexible Respite for Children Service.
Community organisation
Respite for parents with children that have a disability. Children attend camps or are taken out to leisure or recreational activities (e.g. cinema, parks etc)

- Counselling
Parent Line NSW.
Community organisation
Telephone counselling and support service for parents of children aged 0-18 in NSW


Types of support provided through formal support
- Health care,
- Education,
- Financial support,
- Child Care,
- Respite care,
- Counselling


- Health care,
KinCare Nursing Care.
Community organisation
Carers can access this service so that their dependent's health needs are met in their home.
KinCare Nursing Care provides, medicine administration, monitoring, injections, assessment and disease management

- Education,
Carers NSW Education Program.
Community organisation
Information, knowledge and skills to help carers in their role

- Financial support,
Carer Allowance.
Government agency
Income supplements for carers of people with a disability, are aged or have a medical condition

- Child Care,
SDN Children’s Services.
Community organisation.
Preschool and long day care for children with special needs, disabilities or autism. .

- Respite care,
Commonwealth Home and Community Care Program.
Government agency
Respite services for carers of aged individuals

- Counselling
National Carer Counselling Program.
Community Organisation
Online, telephone or group counselling sessions for carers to assist with coping skills and improving wellbeing


Assess the impact assessing formal support services can have in the wellbeing of:
- Young carers
- Aged carers
- First time parents
- Working parents

Respite Care
Temporary care for dependent; carer can have time to themselves
Young; Balancing work or study and caring→ may not have time for social life
Respite; allows to meet up with friends→ improve social/emotional wellbeing
May not always be available and may be expensive

Financial Support
Young who look after family; typically no income and only work limited hours
Income for carers; allows young people to meet own needs
E.g. Person caring for mother, unable to work can access income→ contribute to adequate standard of living

Respite Care
May allow them to meet their multiple commitments, or allow them to rest and recuperate
If carers don’t access respite support, or take time for themselves, they may grow to resent the dependent, as their own wants and needs aren’t being satisfied.
E.g. Elderly woman caring for dementia husband; neglecting social activities→ able to rest, visit bridge club etc

Financial Support
Many are no longer working, only gaining a small income from superannuation or retirement funds that may not be enough to satisfy the needs of the dependent or themselves.
For example, an aged man who wishes to make modifications to his home in order for his disabled wife to comfortably live, may need financial assistance in order to purchase additional equipment or materials, such as a handrail in the shower.

Accessing information that allows them to gain knowledge on how to best raise their dependent→ positively impact on emotional wellbeing.
Education that allows the parent to gain knowledge or skills in rearing a child will make the parent feel more involved and successful
Use the time without the dependent to meet other commitments.
For example, a first time mother who had not seen her friends since giving birth, may access childcare in order to catch up with her friends→ social wellbeing
. However, a first time parent may also experience negative social wellbeing, if friends express conflicting views on which child care service to use
Childcare is also an expensive service→ economic illbeing

Provide them with opportunities to learn how to best connect with their children and maintain a positive relationship whilst they are in childcare.
Education services that provide practical support to working parents on how to manage multiple commitments of work and caring for the child

Transfer the duty of care of their dependent, to other trained professionals.
Allows parents to return to work, study or gain respite during the hours the dependent is away from them.
Allows the dependent to be cared for whilst the parent is away.
The parent may experience positive emotional and spiritual wellbeing, in knowing that their dependent is safe and looked after by trained professionals.
Working parents may feel guilt for leaving their child to be brought up by another.